Expression of axonal protein degradation machinery in sympathetic neurons is regulated by nerve growth factor

2012 ◽  
Vol 90 (8) ◽  
pp. 1533-1546 ◽  
John P. Frampton ◽  
Chong Guo ◽  
Brian A. Pierchala
2004 ◽  
Vol 77 (2) ◽  
pp. 258-269 ◽  
Servio H. Ramirez ◽  
Shongshan Fan ◽  
Casey A. Maguire ◽  
Seth Perry ◽  
Kathy Hardiek ◽  

1992 ◽  
Vol 119 (6) ◽  
pp. 1669-1680 ◽  
P W Mesner ◽  
T R Winters ◽  
S H Green

Previous studies have shown that in neuronal cells the developmental phenomenon of programmed cell death is an active process, requiring synthesis of both RNA and protein. This presumably reflects a requirement for novel gene products to effect cell death. It is shown here that the death of nerve growth factor-deprived neuronal PC12 cells occurs at the same rate as that of rat sympathetic neurons and, like rat sympathetic neurons, involves new transcription and translation. In nerve growth factor-deprived neuronal PC12 cells, a decline in metabolic activity, assessed by uptake of [3H]2-deoxyglucose, precedes the decline in cell number, assessed by counts of trypan blue-excluding cells. Both declines are prevented by actinomycin D and anisomycin. In contrast, the death of nonneuronal (chromaffin-like) PC12 cells is not inhibited by transcription or translation inhibitors and thus does not require new protein synthesis. DNA fragmentation by internucleosomal cleavage does not appear to be a consistent or significant aspect of cell death in sympathetic neurons, neuronal PC12 cells, or nonneuronal PC12 cells, notwithstanding that the putative nuclease inhibitor aurintricarboxylic acid protects sympathetic neurons, as well as neuronal and nonneuronal PC12 cells, from death induced by trophic factor removal. Both phenotypic classes of PC12 cells respond to aurintricarboxylic acid with similar dose-response characteristics. Our results indicate that programmed cell death in neuronal PC12 cells, but not in nonneuronal PC12 cells, resembles programmed cell death in sympathetic neurons in significant mechanistic aspects: time course, role of new protein synthesis, and lack of a significant degree of DNA fragmentation.

1990 ◽  
Vol 110 (4) ◽  
pp. 1295-1306 ◽  
A M Tolkovsky ◽  
A E Walker ◽  
R D Murrell ◽  
H S Suidan

A method for clamping cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in cultures of rat sympathetic neurons at or below resting levels for several days was devised to determine whether Ca2+ signals are required for neurite outgrowth from neurons that depend on Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) for their growth and survival. To control [Ca2+]i, normal Ca2+ influx was eliminated by titration of extracellular Ca2+ with EGTA and reinstated through voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels. The rate of neurite outgrowth and the number of neurites thus became dependent on the extent of depolarization by KCl, and withdrawal of KCl caused an immediate cessation of growth. Neurite outgrowth was completely blocked by the L type Ca2+ channel antagonists nifedipine, nitrendipine, D600, or diltiazem at sub- or micromolar concentrations. Measurement of [Ca2+]i in cell bodies using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura-2 established that optimal growth, similar to that seen in normal medium, was obtained when [Ca2+]i was clamped at resting levels. These levels of [Ca2+]i were set by serum, which elevated [Ca2+]i by integral of 30 nM, whereas the addition of NGF had no effect on [Ca2+]i. The reduction of [Ca2+]o prevented neurite fasciculation but this had no effect on the rate of neurite elongation or on the number of extending neurites. These results show that neurite outgrowth from NGF-dependent neurons occurs over long periods in the complete absence of Ca2+ signals, suggesting that Ca2+ signals are not necessary for operating the basic machinery of neurite outgrowth.

1995 ◽  
Vol 128 (1) ◽  
pp. 201-208 ◽  
I Martinou ◽  
P A Fernandez ◽  
M Missotten ◽  
E White ◽  
B Allet ◽  

To study molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal cell death, we have used sympathetic neurons from superior cervical ganglia which undergo programmed cell death when deprived of nerve growth factor. These neurons have been microinjected with expression vectors containing cDNAs encoding selected proteins to test their regulatory influence over cell death. Using this procedure, we have shown previously that sympathetic neurons can be protected from NGF deprivation by the protooncogene Bcl-2. We now report that the E1B19K protein from adenovirus and the p35 protein from baculovirus also rescue neurons. Other adenoviral proteins, E1A and E1B55K, have no effect on neuronal survival. E1B55K, known to block apoptosis mediated by p53 in proliferative cells, failed to rescue sympathetic neurons suggesting that p53 is not involved in neuronal death induced by NGF deprivation. E1B19K and p35 were also coinjected with Bcl-Xs which blocks Bcl-2 function in lymphoid cells. Although Bcl-Xs blocked the ability of Bcl-2 to rescue neurons, it had no effect on survival that was dependent upon expression of E1B19K or p35.

1977 ◽  
Vol 75 (3) ◽  
pp. 712-718 ◽  
L L Chun ◽  
P H Patterson

The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the development of cholinergic sympathetic neurons was studied in cultures grown either on monolayers of dissociated rat heart cells or in medium conditioned by them. In the presence of rat heart cells the absolute requirement of neurons for exogenous NGF was partially spared. The ability of heart cells to support neuronal survival was due at least in part to production of a diffusable NGF-like substance into the medium. Although some neurons survived on the heart cell monolayer without added NGF, increased levels of exogenous NGF increased neuronal survival until saturation was achieved at 0.5 microgram/ml 7S NGF. The ability of neurons to produce acetylcholine (ACh) from choline was also dependent on the level of exogenous NGF. In mixed neuron-heart cell cultures, NGF increased both ACh and catecholamine (CA) production per neuron to the same extent; saturation occurred at 1 microgram/ml 7S NGF. As cholinergic neurons developed in culture, they became less dependent on NGF for survival and ACh production, but even in older cultures approximately 40% of the neurons died when NGF was withdrawn. Thus, NGF is as necessary for survival, growth, and differentiation of sympathetic neurons when the neurons express cholinergic functions as when the neurons express adrenergic functions (4, 5).

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