High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a non-thermal technology widely used in the industry to extend food shelf-life and it has been proven to enhance the extractability of secondary metabolites, such as carotenoids, in plant foods. In this study, fresh-cut papaya pulp of varieties (Sweet Mary, Alicia and Eksotika) from the Canary Islands (Spain) were submitted to the HHP process (pressure: 100, 350 and 600 MPa; time: come-up time (CUT) and 5 min) to evaluate, for the first time, individual carotenoid and carotenoid ester extractability and to assess their bioaccessibility using an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion assay, following the standardized INFOGEST® methodology. In addition, changes in papaya pulp microstructure after HHP treatments and during the different phases of the in vitro digestion were evaluated with optical light microscopy. HPLC-DAD (LC-MS/MS (APCI+)) analyses revealed that HHP treatments increased the carotenoid content, obtaining the highest extractability in pulp of the Sweet Mary papaya variety treated at 350 MPa during 5 min (4469 ± 124 μg/100 g fresh weight) which was an increase of 269% in respect to the HHP-untreated control sample. The highest carotenoid extraction value within each papaya variety among all HHP treatments was observed for (all-E)-lycopene, in a range of 98–1302 μg/100 g fresh weight (23–344%). Light micrographs of HHP-treated pulps showed many microstructural changes associated to carotenoid release related to the observed increase in their content. Carotenoids and carotenoid esters of papaya pulp submitted to in vitro digestion showed great stability; however, their bioaccessibility was very low due to the low content of fatty acids in papaya pulp necessary for the micellarization process. Further studies will be required to improve papaya carotenoid and carotenoid ester bioaccessibility.
Edible insects have garnered increased interest as alternative protein sources due to the world’s growing population. However, the allergenicity of specific insect proteins is a major concern for both industry and consumers. This preliminary study investigated the capacity of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) coupled to enzymatic hydrolysis by Alcalase® or pepsin in order to improve the in vitro digestion of mealworm proteins, specifically allergenic proteins. Pressurization was applied as pretreatment before in vitro digestion or, simultaneously, during hydrolysis. The degree of hydrolysis was compared between the different treatments and a mass spectrometry-based proteomic method was used to determine the efficiency of allergenic protein hydrolysis. Only the Alcalase® hydrolysis under pressure improved the degree of hydrolysis of mealworm proteins. Moreover, the in vitro digestion of the main allergenic proteins was increased by pressurization conditions that were specifically coupled to pepsin hydrolysis. Consequently, HHP-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis represents an alternative strategy to conventional hydrolysis for generating a large amount of peptide originating from allergenic mealworm proteins, and for lowering their immunoreactivity, for food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical applications.
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology is a physical method for inactivating tissue. We reported that nevus specimens were inactivated after HHP at 200 MPa and that the inactivated nevus could be used as autologous dermis for covering skin defects. In this study, we verified the inactivation of nevus specimens using a newly developed portable HHP device which will be used in a clinical trial. Nevus tissue specimens were obtained from 5 patients (mean age 7.2 years, range 1-19). We cultured fibroblasts and nevus cells from the tissue specimens and then evaluated their inactivation after HHP at 200 MPa by confirming the attachment of the suspensions and by the live/dead staining of the suspensions, through the dissociation of the cells on chamber slides and by the live/dead staining of the remaining cells. The cells were also quantitatively evaluated by WST-8 assay. We then confirmed the inactivation of the nevus specimens after HHP using explant culture. Our results indicated that fibroblasts and nevus cells were inactivated after HHP at 200 MPa, with the exception of a small percentage of green-colored cells, which reflected the remaining activity of the cellular esterases after HHP. No cells migrated from the nevus specimens after HHP at 200 MPa. We verified the inactivation of fibroblasts and nevus cells cultured from nevus specimens, and in the nevus samples themselves after pressurization at 200 MPa using this device. This device could be used in clinical trials for giant congenital melanocytic nevi and may thus become useful in various medical fields.
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been introduced into the field of embryology recently, with the possible mechanism that a sublethal HHP could induce the synthesis of molecular chaperons to protect the embryos from further stresses. Improved cryotolerance has been achieved successfully in HHP-treated mouse (Pribenszky 2005 Anim. Reprod. Sci. 87, 143–150) and bovine (Pribenszky 2005 Reprod. Domest. Anim. 40, 338) embryos, and the semen of bull (Pribenszky 2007 Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 19, 181–182) and boar (Pribenszky 2005 Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 18, 162–163). The objective of the present study was to apply this new technique to in vitro-matured (IVM) porcine oocytes and further investigate its effect in the procedure of handmade cloning (HMC). After 40 h IVM, cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were loaded in 0.5-mL straws by a 2-mL syringe, with HEPES-buffered TCM199 as the loading medium. COCs were then treated with 20 MPa (200 times greater than atmospheric pressure) for 60 min by a pressurizing device (Cryo-Innovation Inc., Budapest, Hungary), with an interval of 120 min between HHP treatment and subsequent HMC. Two different cell lines (from Day 40 fetuses of Yucatan and Danish Landrace breeds (LW1-2)) were used as donor cells for nuclear transfer. A total of 592 reconstructed embryos were produced from both HHP-treated and control groups and were in vitro cultured for 6 days to evaluate the developmental competence through to blastocyst formation. The effect of donor cells on blastocyst development was also investigated. SPSS 11.0 program (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis; values with P < 0.05 were regarded as significant. Blastocyst rates of the different groups are shown in Table 1. Our results indicated that COCs treated with HHP had a much higher blastocyst rate than those untreated (P < 0.01) and this improvement was not affected by using different donor cells for nuclear transfer. In conclusion, the sublethal HHP treatment could improve the in vitro developmental competence of porcine IVM oocytes when they are used for HMC. Further in vivo experiments are required to investigate the long-term effect of HHP on embryo development.
Table 1. Day 6 blastocyst rates of HHP-treated and control groups with different donor cells for nuclear transfer
The authors thank Ruth Kristensen and Janne Adamsen for their help and excellent technical assistance.