scholarly journals Science & Speculation

Erkenntnis ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Adrian Currie

AbstractDespite wide recognition that speculation is critical for successful science, philosophers have attended little to it. When they have, speculation has been characterized in narrowly epistemic terms: a hypothesis is speculative due to its (lack of) evidential support. These ‘evidence-first’ accounts provide little guidance for what makes speculation productive or egregious, nor how to foster the former while avoiding the latter. I examine how scientists discuss speculation and identify various functions speculations play. On this basis, I develop a ‘function-first’ account of speculation. This analysis grounds a richer discussion of when speculation is egregious and when it is productive, based in both fine-grained analysis of the speculation’s purpose, and what I call the ‘epistemic situation’ scientists face.

Author(s):  
Richard S. Chemock

One of the most common tasks in a typical analysis lab is the recording of images. Many analytical techniques (TEM, SEM, and metallography for example) produce images as their primary output. Until recently, the most common method of recording images was by using film. Current PS/2R systems offer very large capacity data storage devices and high resolution displays, making it practical to work with analytical images on PS/2s, thereby sidestepping the traditional film and darkroom steps. This change in operational mode offers many benefits: cost savings, throughput, archiving and searching capabilities as well as direct incorporation of the image data into reports.The conventional way to record images involves film, either sheet film (with its associated wet chemistry) for TEM or PolaroidR film for SEM and light microscopy. Although film is inconvenient, it does have the highest quality of all available image recording techniques. The fine grained film used for TEM has a resolution that would exceed a 4096x4096x16 bit digital image.


Author(s):  
Steven D. Toteda

Zirconia oxygen sensors, in such applications as power plants and automobiles, generally utilize platinum electrodes for the catalytic reaction of dissociating O2 at the surface. The microstructure of the platinum electrode defines the resulting electrical response. The electrode must be porous enough to allow the oxygen to reach the zirconia surface while still remaining electrically continuous. At low sintering temperatures, the platinum is highly porous and fine grained. The platinum particles sinter together as the firing temperatures are increased. As the sintering temperatures are raised even further, the surface of the platinum begins to facet with lower energy surfaces. These microstructural changes can be seen in Figures 1 and 2, but the goal of the work is to characterize the microstructure by its fractal dimension and then relate the fractal dimension to the electrical response. The sensors were fabricated from zirconia powder stabilized in the cubic phase with 8 mol% percent yttria. Each substrate was sintered for 14 hours at 1200°C. The resulting zirconia pellets, 13mm in diameter and 2mm in thickness, were roughly 97 to 98 percent of theoretical density. The Engelhard #6082 platinum paste was applied to the zirconia disks after they were mechanically polished ( diamond). The electrodes were then sintered at temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1000°C. Each sensor was tested to determine the impedance response from 1Hz to 5,000Hz. These frequencies correspond to the electrode at the test temperature of 600°C.


Author(s):  
J. W. Mellowes ◽  
C. M. Chun ◽  
I. A. Aksay

Mullite (3Al2O32SiO2) can be fabricated by transient viscous sintering using composite particles which consist of inner cores of a-alumina and outer coatings of amorphous silica. Powder compacts prepared with these particles are sintered to almost full density at relatively low temperatures (~1300°C) and converted to dense, fine-grained mullite at higher temperatures (>1500°C) by reaction between the alumina core and the silica coating. In order to achieve complete mullitization, optimal conditions for coating alumina particles with amorphous silica must be achieved. Formation of amorphous silica can occur in solution (homogeneous nucleation) or on the surface of alumina (heterogeneous nucleation) depending on the degree of supersaturation of the solvent in which the particles are immersed. Successful coating of silica on alumina occurs when heterogeneous nucleation is promoted and homogeneous nucleation is suppressed. Therefore, one key to successful coating is an understanding of the factors such as pH and concentration that control silica nucleation in aqueous solutions. In the current work, we use TEM to determine the optimal conditions of this processing.


Author(s):  
C. P. Doğan ◽  
R. D. Wilson ◽  
J. A. Hawk

Capacitor Discharge Welding is a rapid solidification technique for joining conductive materials that results in a narrow fusion zone and almost no heat affected zone. As a result, the microstructures and properties of the bulk materials are essentially continuous across the weld interface. During the joining process, one of the materials to be joined acts as the anode and the other acts as the cathode. The anode and cathode are brought together with a concomitant discharge of a capacitor bank, creating an arc which melts the materials at the joining surfaces and welds them together (Fig. 1). As the electrodes impact, the arc is extinguished, and the molten interface cools at rates that can exceed 106 K/s. This process results in reduced porosity in the fusion zone, a fine-grained weldment, and a reduced tendency for hot cracking.At the U.S. Bureau of Mines, we are currently examining the possibilities of using capacitor discharge welding to join dissimilar metals, metals to intermetallics, and metals to conductive ceramics. In this particular study, we will examine the microstructural characteristics of iron-aluminum welds in detail, focussing our attention primarily on interfaces produced during the rapid solidification process.


Author(s):  
Gejing Li ◽  
D. R. Peacor ◽  
D. S. Coombs ◽  
Y. Kawachi

Recent advances in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) have led to many new insights into the structural and chemical characteristics of very finegrained, optically homogeneous mineral aggregates in sedimentary and very low-grade metamorphic rocks. Chemical compositions obtained by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) on such materials have been shown by TEM/AEM to result from beam overlap on contaminant phases on a scale below resolution of EMPA, which in turn can lead to errors in interpretation and determination of formation conditions. Here we present an in-depth analysis of the relation between AEM and EMPA data, which leads also to the definition of new mineral phases, and demonstrate the resolution power of AEM relative to EMPA in investigations of very fine-grained mineral aggregates in sedimentary and very low-grade metamorphic rocks.Celadonite, having end-member composition KMgFe3+Si4O10(OH)2, and with minor substitution of Fe2+ for Mg and Al for Fe3+ on octahedral sites, is a fine-grained mica widespread in volcanic rocks and volcaniclastic sediments which have undergone low-temperature alteration in the oceanic crust and in burial metamorphic sequences.


Author(s):  
Wang Zheng-fang ◽  
Z.F. Wang

The main purpose of this study highlights on the evaluation of chloride SCC resistance of the material,duplex stainless steel,OOCr18Ni5Mo3Si2 (18-5Mo) and its welded coarse grained zone(CGZ).18-5Mo is a dual phases (A+F) stainless steel with yield strength:512N/mm2 .The proportion of secondary Phase(A phase) accounts for 30-35% of the total with fine grained and homogeneously distributed A and F phases(Fig.1).After being welded by a specific welding thermal cycle to the material,i.e. Tmax=1350°C and t8/5=20s,microstructure may change from fine grained morphology to coarse grained morphology and from homogeneously distributed of A phase to a concentration of A phase(Fig.2).Meanwhile,the proportion of A phase reduced from 35% to 5-10°o.For this reason it is known as welded coarse grained zone(CGZ).In association with difference of microstructure between base metal and welded CGZ,so chloride SCC resistance also differ from each other.Test procedures:Constant load tensile test(CLTT) were performed for recording Esce-t curve by which corrosion cracking growth can be described, tf,fractured time,can also be recorded by the test which is taken as a electrochemical behavior and mechanical property for SCC resistance evaluation. Test environment:143°C boiling 42%MgCl2 solution is used.Besides, micro analysis were conducted with light microscopy(LM),SEM,TEM,and Auger energy spectrum(AES) so as to reveal the correlation between the data generated by the CLTT results and micro analysis.


Author(s):  
William Krakow ◽  
Alec N. Broers

Low-loss scanning electron microscopy can be used to investigate the surface topography of solid specimens and provides enhanced image contrast over secondary electron images. A high resolution-condenser objective lens has allowed the low-loss technique to resolve separations of Au nucleii of 50Å and smaller dimensions of 25Å in samples coated with a fine grained carbon-Au-palladium layer. An estimate of the surface topography of fine grained vapor deposited materials (20 - 100Å) and the surface topography of underlying single crystal Si in the 1000 - 2000Å range has also been investigated. Surface imaging has also been performed on single crystals using diffracted electrons scattered through 10−2 rad in a conventional TEM. However, severe tilting of the specimen is required which degrades the resolution 15 to 100 fold due to image forshortening.


1995 ◽  
Vol 38 (5) ◽  
pp. 1126-1142 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jeffrey W. Gilger

This paper is an introduction to behavioral genetics for researchers and practioners in language development and disorders. The specific aims are to illustrate some essential concepts and to show how behavioral genetic research can be applied to the language sciences. Past genetic research on language-related traits has tended to focus on simple etiology (i.e., the heritability or familiality of language skills). The current state of the art, however, suggests that great promise lies in addressing more complex questions through behavioral genetic paradigms. In terms of future goals it is suggested that: (a) more behavioral genetic work of all types should be done—including replications and expansions of preliminary studies already in print; (b) work should focus on fine-grained, theory-based phenotypes with research designs that can address complex questions in language development; and (c) work in this area should utilize a variety of samples and methods (e.g., twin and family samples, heritability and segregation analyses, linkage and association tests, etc.).


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