The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of swertiamarin on heart failure. To this end, a rat model of heart failure was established via left coronary artery ligation. Infarct size of heart tissues was determined using triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function by the determination of ejection fraction, left ventricular internal dimension in diastole and left ventricular internal dimension in systole. The effect of swertiamarin on oxidative stress was evaluated via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mechanism was evaluated using western blot. Administration of swertiamarin reduced the infarct size of heart tissues in rat models with heart failure. Moreover, swertiamarin treatment ameliorated the cardiac function, increased ejection fraction and fractional shortening, decreased left ventricular internal dimension in diastole and left ventricular internal dimension in systole. Swertiamarin improved oxidative stress with reduced malondialdehyde, while increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and GSH peroxidase. Furthermore, nuclear-factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, heme oxygenase and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1) were elevated by swertiamarin treatment in heart tissues of rat model with heart failure. Swertiamarin alleviated heart failure through suppression of oxidative stress response via nuclear-factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 pathway providing a novel therapeutic strategy for heart failure.
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is one of the major risk factors for glaucoma onset and progression, and available pharmaceutical interventions are exclusively targeted at IOP lowering. However, degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) may continue to progress despite extensive lowering of IOP. A complementary strategy to IOP reduction is the use of neuroprotective agents that interrupt the process of cell death by mechanisms independent of IOP. Here, we describe an ion complexation approach for formulating microcrystals containing ~50% loading of a protein kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, to enhance survival of RGCs with subconjunctival injection. A single subconjunctival injection of sunitinib-pamoate complex (SPC) microcrystals provided 20 weeks of sustained retina drug levels, leading to neuroprotection in a rat model of optic nerve injury. Furthermore, subconjunctival injection of SPC microcrystals also led to therapeutic effects in a rat model of corneal neovascularization. Importantly, therapeutically relevant retina drug concentrations were achieved with subconjunctival injection of SPC microcrystals in pigs. For a chronic disease such as glaucoma, a formulation that provides sustained therapeutic effects to complement IOP lowering therapies could provide improved disease management and promote patient quality of life.
Abstract- Several studies point to an important role of neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognitive and memory impairments have been known in the early stages of PD. In the present study, we examined the effects of celecoxib (CLX), a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), on hippocampus cell loss, passive avoidance memory and antioxidant status in a rat model of PD. We used the subcutaneous injection of 2.5 mg/kg/48h rotenone (ROT) for 4 weeks for induction of PD in a male Wistar rat. Animals were randomized to 4 groups (n=12): Control, sham, PD and PD+CLX group that receive celecoxib (20 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Passive avoidance memory evaluated. We also determined the protective effect of CLX on a number of CA1 neurons in Nissl and TUNEL staining. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) a marker of lipid peroxidation in hippocampus assessed. Our findings indicated administration of CLX increase the passive avoidance memory (P<0.05), and by a decrease in apoptosis caused an increase in viable pyramidal neurons in CA1 hippocampus (P<0.01). On the other hand, CLX markedly reduced MDA level and increased TAC in the hippocampus of the PD model animal (P<0.05). It seems CLX with anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effect could prevent neurons loss and memory impairment which induced in PD.