BackgroundResearch evidence supports the assertion that healthy employees are happier and more productive. Employers prefer to hire healthy workers to reduce absenteeism. Rehabilitation counselors have started to explore health promotion interventions to help individuals with chronic health conditions and disability improve their physical and mental health as a strategy to increase their employment opportunities.PurposeThe present study evaluated a self-determination theory (SDT) model of physical activity and exercise in a sample of 218 individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain using structural equation modeling.ResultsThe SDT model fit the data well, accounting for 54% of the variance in physical activity and exercise. Relatedness was significantly associated with autonomous motivation for physical activity and exercise. Autonomous motivation was associated with competency. Competency was associated with physical activity and exercise. Autonomous motivation and competency mediated relatedness and physical activity and exercise.ImplicationsThis study contributes to an emerging body of theory-informed health promotion literature and identifies the specific pathways that will increase the motivation to engage in physical activity and exercise. Findings can be used to design and validate theory-driven health promotion interventions as an employment strategy for people with chronic musculoskeletal pain receiving vocational rehabilitation services.
The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between motivation and readiness levels for physical activity and exercise behaviour among persons with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Participants were 211 U.S. adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain from online support groups as well as specialty and primary care clinics (females = 86.7%; mean age = 43.4 years, SD = 14.4 years). The participants completed an online survey on their engagement in physical activity and exercise behaviour. Multiple one-way analyses of variance with post-hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test revealed significant differences between the readiness stages of change groups of preintenders, intenders, and actors in their motivation for physical activity and exercise behaviour. Specifically, the actor group of behavioural change reported higher levels of motivation beliefs for physical activity and exercise behaviour compared to preintenders and intenders. These findings suggest that people with chronic musculoskeletal pain experiencing increased motivation for physical activity and exercise behaviour are more engaged in desired behaviours than the persons with chronic pain reporting varying degrees of behavioural intentions.
Background: Despite scientific evidence on prenatal physical activity and exercise, synthesized evidence is lacking on the provision of prenatal physical activity and exercise advice and counselling by prenatal healthcare providers. The scoping review seeks to fill this gap by synthesizing available literature on the provision of prenatal physical activity and exercise advice and counselling by prenatal healthcare providers to women during antenatal visits. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) search framework for scoping reviews was applied to retrieve original research articles on the prenatal physical activity and exercise practices of healthcare providers with pregnant women, published between 2010–2020, and available in English. The search databases included Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, EMBASE, The Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), BIOMED Central, Medline and African Journal Online. Studies that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were retrieved for analysis. Results: Out of the 82 articles that were retrieved for review, 13 met the eligibility criteria. Seven of the articles were quantitative, four qualitative, one mixed-method and one controlled, non-randomised study, respectively. Three themes emerged as major findings. Healthcare providers affirmed their responsibility in providing prenatal physical activity advice and counselling to pregnant women; however, they seldom or rarely performed this role. Major barriers to prenatal physical activity and exercise included insufficient time, lack of knowledge and skills, inadequate or insufficient training, and lack of resources. Conclusion: This review highlights salient features constraining the uptake of prenatal physical activity and exercise advice/counselling by prenatal healthcare providers in both community and clinical settings. Prenatal physical activity advice and counselling are key components to the promotion of physical activity adherence during and post-partum pregnancy; this requires adequate knowledge of physical activity prescriptions and recommendations, which are personalised and contextual to environment. Research is needed to examine the prenatal physical activity advice and counselling from prenatal healthcare providers on issues hindering effective delivery of the aforementioned in the context of promoting prenatal physical activity in clinical or community settings.