Using Rapid Repeat SAR Interferometry to Improve Hydrodynamic Models of Flood Propagation in Coastal Wetlands

2021 ◽  
pp. 104088
Xiaohe Zhang ◽  
Cathleen E. Jones ◽  
Talib Oliver Cabrera ◽  
Marc Simard ◽  
Sergio Fagherazzi
2021 ◽  
Tom Fairchild ◽  
William Bennett ◽  
Greg Smith ◽  
Brett Day ◽  
Martin Skov ◽  

Abstract As storm-driven coastal flooding increases under climate change, wetlands such as saltmarshes are held as a nature-based solution. Yet evidence supporting wetlands’ storm protection role in estuaries - where both waves and upstream surge drive coastal flooding - remains scarce. Here we address this gap using numerical hydrodynamic models within eight contextually diverse estuaries, simulating storms of varying intensity and coupling flood predictions to damage valuation. Saltmarshes reduced flooding across all studied estuaries and particularly for the largest – 100-year – storms, for which they mitigated average flood extents by 35% and damages by 37% ($8.4M). Across all storm scenarios, wetlands delivered mean annual damage savings of $2.7M per estuary, exceeding annualised values of better-studied wetland services such as carbon storage. Spatial decomposition of processes revealed flood mitigation arose from both localised wave attenuation and estuary-scale surge attenuation, with the latter process dominating: mean flood reductions were 17% in the sheltered top third of estuaries, compared to 8% near wave-exposed estuary mouths. Saltmarshes therefore play a generalised role in mitigating storm flooding and associated costs in estuaries via multi-scale processes. Ecosystem service modelling must integrate processes operating across scales or risk grossly underestimating the value of nature-based solutions to the growing threat of storm-driven coastal flooding.

2013 ◽  
Vol 22 (7) ◽  
pp. 947 ◽  
Katrin Lowe ◽  
J. Guy Castley ◽  
Jean-Marc Hero

Fire has varying effects on species ecology. Knowledge of amphibian responses to fire is particularly limited, with variable responses reported amongst studies. Variability is attributed to differences in fire regimes, sampling methodologies, historical exposure to fire and species traits. Acid frogs, a group of amphibians restricted to acidic coastal heath wetlands of eastern Australia, occupy a discrete ecological niche that is exposed to regular and intense fires. Visual encounter surveys conducted monthly over 2 years revealed different short- and long-term responses to fire in three threatened acid frog species (Litoria olongburensis, Litoria freycineti and Crinia tinnula). Fires altered the thermal properties of habitats by increasing substrate temperature and widening daily temperature ranges. Acid frog populations did not suffer adversely from moderate intensity fires as suitable refuges, including standing water, were available. All species were present shortly after fire with subsequent successful reproduction occurring once wetlands were sufficiently inundated. Time since fire was a strong predictor of landscape scale differences in average relative abundance of acid frogs, yet the relationships varied among species. This highlights the importance of assessing community-wide responses to fire at the landscape scale. The dynamic and adaptive responses observed within acid frog populations demonstrate substantial resilience to fire processes in these fire prone environments.

1996 ◽  
Vol 265 (3-4) ◽  
pp. 181-190 ◽  
B. Fruneau ◽  
J. Achache ◽  
C. Delacourt

1998 ◽  
Vol 36 (1) ◽  
pp. 82-96 ◽  
John C Callaway ◽  
Ronald D Delaune ◽  
William H Patrick

2017 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Siddharth Narayan ◽  
Michael W. Beck ◽  
Paul Wilson ◽  
Christopher J. Thomas ◽  
Alexandra Guerrero ◽  

2005 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 63-71 ◽  

The status of breeding pelicans and cormorants is assessed in the area from the Danube delta (Romania) to the northern part of the Crimean peninsula. Four breeding species occur in inland and coastal wetlands: Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus, Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus, Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo and Pygmy Cormorant Phalacrocorax pygmeus. Data on clutch size and breeding success are given. Historically, all four species were restricted to the Danube delta. Currently, with the exception of Dalmatian Pelican, they all breed successfully on the eastern Black Sea coast in the Ukraine. There are many conservation problems that will jeopardize the breeding of these species in the future if nothing is done.

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