Risk assessment of unlined oil pits leaking into groundwater in the Ecuadorian Amazon: A modified GIS-DRASTIC approach

2022 ◽  
Vol 139 ◽  
pp. 102628
J. Durango-Cordero ◽  
M. Saqalli ◽  
S. Ferrant ◽  
S. Bonilla ◽  
L. Maurice ◽  
Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (5) ◽  
pp. 613
Samantha Jiménez-Oyola ◽  
Kenny Escobar Segovia ◽  
María-Jesús García-Martínez ◽  
Marcelo Ortega ◽  
David Bolonio ◽  

Anthropogenic activities performed in the Ecuadorian Amazon have released potentially toxic elements (PTEs) into the rivers, causing severe environmental pollution and increasing the risk of exposure to the residents of the surrounding areas. This study aims to carry out a human health risk assessment using deterministic and probabilistic methods to estimate the hazard index (HI) and total cancer risk (TCR) related to multi-pathway human exposure to PTEs in polluted rivers. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in surface water and sediment samples from rivers on the Ecuadorian Amazon were considered to assess the potential adverse human health effects. As a result, deterministic and probabilistic estimations of cancer and non-cancer risk through exposure to surface waters and sediments were above the safety limit. A sensitivity analysis identified the concentration of PTEs and the exposure duration (ED) as the two most important variables for probabilistic health risk assessment. The highest risk for receptors was related to exposure to polluted sediments through incidental ingestion and dermal contact routes. According to the deterministic estimation, the human health risk through ingestion of water was above the threshold in specific locations. This study reveals the potential health risk to which the population is exposed. This information can be used as a baseline to develop public strategies to reduce anthropogenic pollution and exposure to PTEs in Ecuadorian Amazon rivers.

1998 ◽  
Vol 62 (10) ◽  
pp. 756-761 ◽  
CW Douglass

2006 ◽  
Vol 175 (4S) ◽  
pp. 531-532
Matthew R. Cooperberg ◽  
Stephen J. Freedland ◽  
David J. Pasta ◽  
Eric P. Elkin ◽  
Joseph C. Presti ◽  

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