scholarly journals Force measurements of MyosinII waves at the yolk surface during Drosophila dorsal closure.

L. Selvaggi ◽  
M. Ackermann ◽  
L. Pasakarnis ◽  
D. Brunner ◽  
C.M. Aegerter
Serge Reynaud ◽  
Astrid Lambrecht

The Casimir force is an effect of quantum vacuum field fluctuations, with applications in many domains of physics. The ideal expression obtained by Casimir, valid for perfect plane mirrors at zero temperature, has to be modified to take into account the effects of the optical properties of mirrors, thermal fluctuations, and geometry. After a general introduction to the Casimir force and a description of the current state of the art for Casimir force measurements and their comparison with theory, this chapter presents pedagogical treatments of the main features of the theory of Casimir forces for one-dimensional model systems and for mirrors in three-dimensional space.

Genetics ◽  
2003 ◽  
Vol 165 (1) ◽  
pp. 159-169
Benjamin Boettner ◽  
Phoebe Harjes ◽  
Satoshi Ishimaru ◽  
Michael Heke ◽  
Hong Qing Fan ◽  

Abstract Rap1 belongs to the highly conserved Ras subfamily of small GTPases. In Drosophila, Rap1 plays a critical role in many different morphogenetic processes, but the molecular mechanisms executing its function are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Canoe (Cno), the Drosophila homolog of mammalian junctional protein AF-6, acts as an effector of Rap1 in vivo. Cno binds to the activated form of Rap1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay, the two molecules colocalize to the adherens junction, and they display very similar phenotypes in embryonic dorsal closure (DC), a process that relies on the elongation and migration of epithelial cell sheets. Genetic interaction experiments show that Rap1 and Cno act in the same molecular pathway during DC and that the function of both molecules in DC depends on their ability to interact. We further show that Rap1 acts upstream of Cno, but that Rap1, unlike Cno, is not involved in the stimulation of JNK pathway activity, indicating that Cno has both a Rap1-dependent and a Rap1-independent function in the DC process.

Genetics ◽  
1997 ◽  
Vol 147 (1) ◽  
pp. 243-253 ◽  
Joseph Jack ◽  
Guy Myette

Abstract The products of two genes, raw and ribbon (rib), are required for the proper morphogenesis of a variety of tissues. Malpighian tubules mutant for raw or rib are wider and shorter than normal tubules, which are only two cells in circumference when they are fully formed. The mutations alter the shape of the tubules beginning early in their formation and block cell rearrangement late in development, which normally lengthens and narrows the tubes. Mutations of both genes affect a number of other tissues as well. Both genes are required for dorsal closure and retraction of the CNS during embryonic development. In addition, rib mutations block head involution, and broaden and shorten other tubular epithelia (salivary glands, tracheae, and hindgut) in much same manner as they alter the shape of the Malpighian tubules. In tissues in which the shape of cells can be observed readily, rib mutations alter cell shape, which probably causes the change in shape of the organs that are affected. In double mutants raw enhances the phenotypes of all the tissues that are affected by rib but unaffected by raw alone, indicating that raw is also active in these tissues.

2015 ◽  
Vol 767 ◽  
pp. 430-448 ◽  
Daniel B. Quinn ◽  
George V. Lauder ◽  
Alexander J. Smits

AbstractExperimental gradient-based optimization is used to maximize the propulsive efficiency of a heaving and pitching flexible panel. Optimum and near-optimum conditions are studied via direct force measurements and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The net thrust and power scale predictably with the frequency and amplitude of the leading edge, but the efficiency shows a complex multimodal response. Optimum pitch and heave motions are found to produce nearly twice the efficiencies of optimum heave-only motions. Efficiency is globally optimized when (i) the Strouhal number is within an optimal range that varies weakly with amplitude and boundary conditions; (ii) the panel is actuated at a resonant frequency of the fluid–panel system; (iii) heave amplitude is tuned such that trailing-edge amplitude is maximized while the flow along the body remains attached; and (iv) the maximum pitch angle and phase lag are chosen so that the effective angle of attack is minimized. The multi-dimensionality and multi-modality of the efficiency response demonstrate that experimental optimization is well-suited for the design of flexible underwater propulsors.

Langmuir ◽  
2005 ◽  
Vol 21 (13) ◽  
pp. 5831-5841 ◽  
Jinhong Zhang ◽  
Roe-Hoan Yoon ◽  
Min Mao ◽  
William A. Ducker

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