scholarly journals Progerin-Expressing Endothelial Cells are Unable to Adapt to Shear Stress

Brooke E. Danielsson ◽  
Hannah C. Peters ◽  
Kranthi Bathula ◽  
Lindsay M. Spear ◽  
Natalie A. Noll ◽  
1997 ◽  
Vol 78 (05) ◽  
pp. 1392-1398 ◽  
A Schneider ◽  
M Chandra ◽  
G Lazarovici ◽  
I Vlodavsky ◽  
G Merin ◽  

SummaryPurpose: Successful development of a vascular prosthesis lined with endothelial cells (EC) may depend on the ability of the attached cells to resist shear forces after implantation. The present study was designed to investigate EC detachment from extracellular matrix (ECM) precoated vascular prostheses, caused by shear stress in vitro and to test the performance of these grafts in vivo. Methods: Bovine aortic endothelial cells were seeded inside untreated polytetrafluoro-ethylene (PTFE) vascular graft (10 X 0.6 cm), PTFE graft precoated with fibronectin (FN), or PTFE precoated with FN and a naturally produced ECM (106 cells/graft). Sixteen hours after seeding the medium was replaced and unattached cells counted. The strength of endothelial cell attachment was evaluated by subjecting the grafts to a physiologic shear stress of 15 dynes/cm2 for 1 h. The detached cells were collected and quantitated. PTFE or EC preseeded ECM coated grafts were implanted in the common carotid arteries of dogs. Results: While little or no differences were found in the extent of endothelial cell attachment to the various grafts (79%, 87% and 94% of the cells attached to PTFE, FN precoated PTFE, or FN+ECM precoated PTFE, respectively), the number of cells retained after a shear stress was significanly increased on ECM coated PTFE (20%, 54% and 85% on PTFE, FN coated PTFE, and FN+ECM coated PTFE, respectively, p <0.01). Implantation experiments in dogs revealed a significant increase in EC coverage and a reduced incidence of thrombus formation on ECM coated grafts that were seeded with autologous saphenous vein endothelial cells prior to implantation. Conclusion: ECM coating significantly increased the strength of endothelial cell attachment to vascular prostheses subjected to shear stress. The presence of adhesive macromolecules and potent endothelial cell growth promoting factors may render the ECM a promising substrate for vascular prostheses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Semra Zuhal Birol ◽  
Rana Fucucuoglu ◽  
Sertac Cadirci ◽  
Ayca Sayi-Yazgan ◽  
Levent Trabzon

AbstractAtherosclerosis is a long-term disease process of the vascular system that is characterized by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, which are inflammatory regions on medium and large-sized arteries. There are many factors contributing to plaque formation, such as changes in shear stress levels, rupture of endothelial cells, accumulation of lipids, and recruitment of leukocytes. Shear stress is one of the main factors that regulates the homeostasis of the circulatory system; therefore, sudden and chronic changes in shear stress may cause severe pathological conditions. In this study, microfluidic channels with cavitations were designed to mimic the shape of the atherosclerotic blood vessel, where the shear stress and pressure difference depend on design of the microchannels. Changes in the inflammatory-related molecules ICAM-1 and IL-8 were investigated in THP-1 cells in response to applied shear stresses in an continuous cycling system through microfluidic channels with periodic cavitations. ICAM-1 mRNA expression and IL-8 release were analyzed by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Additionally, the adhesion behavior of sheared THP-1 cells to endothelial cells was examined by fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that 15 Pa shear stress significantly increases expression of ICAM-1 gene and IL-8 release in THP-1 cells, whereas it decreases the adhesion between THP-1 cells and endothelial cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (11) ◽  
pp. 5635
Katharina Urschel ◽  
Miyuki Tauchi ◽  
Stephan Achenbach ◽  
Barbara Dietel

In the 1900s, researchers established animal models experimentally to induce atherosclerosis by feeding them with a cholesterol-rich diet. It is now accepted that high circulating cholesterol is one of the main causes of atherosclerosis; however, plaque localization cannot be explained solely by hyperlipidemia. A tremendous amount of studies has demonstrated that hemodynamic forces modify endothelial athero-susceptibility phenotypes. Endothelial cells possess mechanosensors on the apical surface to detect a blood stream-induced force on the vessel wall, known as “wall shear stress (WSS)”, and induce cellular and molecular responses. Investigations to elucidate the mechanisms of this process are on-going: on the one hand, hemodynamics in complex vessel systems have been described in detail, owing to the recent progress in imaging and computational techniques. On the other hand, investigations using unique in vitro chamber systems with various flow applications have enhanced the understanding of WSS-induced changes in endothelial cell function and the involvement of the glycocalyx, the apical surface layer of endothelial cells, in this process. In the clinical setting, attempts have been made to measure WSS and/or glycocalyx degradation non-invasively, for the purpose of their diagnostic utilization. An increasing body of evidence shows that WSS, as well as serum glycocalyx components, can serve as a predicting factor for atherosclerosis development and, most importantly, for the rupture of plaques in patients with high risk of coronary heart disease.

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