Context matters: Unpacking decision-making, external influences and spatial factors on clean cooking transitions in Nepal

2022 ◽  
Vol 85 ◽  
pp. 102408
Bishal Bharadwaj ◽  
Yuwan Malakar ◽  
Mathew Herington ◽  
Peta Ashworth
2021 ◽  
Jonathan Michael Paul Wilbiks

When making decisions as to whether or not to bind auditory and visual information, temporal, spatial and congruency factors all contribute to the acceptance or rejection of multi-modal unity. While many of these factors have been studied in isolation, it is important to examine how they interact in a dynamic setting, in addition to evaluating ideas about the intrinsic relation between audition and the processing of time, and vision and the processing of space. Four experiments are presented, placing auditory and visual stimuli in a competitive binding scenario, to compare the effects of temporal and spatial factors both within and between modalities. Results support the dominance of auditory factors in temporal decision-making, and visual factors in spatial decision-making, with additional evidence for the presence of visual looming. With respect to audio-visual binding, the findings indicate precedence for temporal factors, with reliance on congruency factors only when the stimulus pairings are temporally ambiguous.

1994 ◽  
Vol 18 (5) ◽  
pp. 266-268
Helen Matthews ◽  
Sheila Hollins ◽  
Jeanette Smith ◽  
Gwen Adshead

Learning disability services care for the needs of patients whose autonomy of thought and action is impaired by processes that often cannot be reversed. Their autonomy may also be limited by external influences such as carers' attitudes, both positive and negative. Others may therefore find themselves making decisions for such patients. The case presented in this paper illustrates how these factors can condemn a wealthy woman to a life of relative poverty, lacking in pleasures she could so easily afford, because she lacks competence in some areas of decision making. A possible solution is proposed.

Mario S Staller ◽  
Benjamin Zaiser ◽  
Swen Koerner

Cognitive biases have been identified as drivers of the excessive use of force, which has determined current affairs across the globe. In this article, we argue that the police are facing serious challenges in combating these biases. These challenges stem from the nature of cognitive biases, their sources and the fallacies that mislead police professionals in the way they think about them. Based on a framework of expert decision-making fallacies and biases, we argue that these fallacies limit the impact of efforts to mitigate cognitive biases in police conflict management. In order to achieve a systemic understanding of cognitive biases and their detrimental effects, the article concludes that implementing reflexive structures within the police is a crucial prerequisite to effectively reflect on external influences and to limit bias and fallacies from further unfolding in a self-referential loop.

2021 ◽  
pp. 303-326
Anne Dennett

This chapter examines the role of the judiciary in the UK constitution, the critically important concepts of judicial independence and neutrality, accountability of judges, and judicial power. The UK courts administer justice; uphold the rule of law; and act as a check on executive power. Judicial independence requires that judges should be free from external influences in their decision-making, and make decisions without political interference or fear of reprisal. Meanwhile, judicial neutrality means that judges should determine legal disputes impartially, objectively, and solely by applying the law. At first sight, judicial accountability seems inconsistent with being independent, but it is essential that the judiciary adheres to the highest standards in carrying out its functions. In the absence of a codified constitution, the boundaries of judicial power operate within a framework of constitutional principles and conventions, but there is debate over the limits of that power.

2010 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 182-199
José Emilio Navas López ◽  
Luis Ángel Guerras Martín ◽  
Antonio Montero Navarro

The goal of this paper is to analyze the relative convenience of using a rational process for making strategic decisions. According to traditional views, the strategic decision making process should be aligned with the so-called rational or synoptic process. Nevertheless, a look at the decisions taken by firms clarifies that this is far from the truth, -there are many aspects which could foster or refrain the degree of rationality. After explaining a wholly rational strategic process coupled with its potential strengths, this paper presents the principal criticisms to the model, in addition to the factors conditioning the level of rationality of the process in practice. As a consequence of this comparison, our conclusions defend the use of an intended rational process, bearing in mind the multiple internal and external influences that will affect the decision scheme, undermining the degree of rationality.

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