Effects of root characteristics on panicle formation in japonica rice under low temperature water stress at the reproductive stage

2022 ◽  
Vol 277 ◽  
pp. 108395
Yan Jia ◽  
Hualong Liu ◽  
Hao Wang ◽  
Detang Zou ◽  
Zhaojun Qu ◽  
Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 210
Caleb Daniel Watson ◽  
Michela Martinelli ◽  
Donald Charles Cronauer ◽  
A. Jeremy Kropf ◽  
Gary Jacobs

Recent studies have shown that appropriate levels of alkali promotion can significantly improve the rate of low-temperature water gas shift (LT-WGS) on a range of catalysts. At sufficient loadings, the alkali metal can weaken the formate C–H bond and promote formate dehydrogenation, which is the proposed rate determining step in the formate associative mechanism. In a continuation of these studies, the effect of Rb promotion on Pt/ZrO2 is examined herein. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts were prepared with several different Rb loadings and characterized using temperature programmed reduction mass spectrometry (TPR-MS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), an X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) difference procedure, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) fitting, TPR-EXAFS/XANES, and reactor testing. At loadings of 2.79% Rb or higher, a significant shift was seen in the formate ν(CH) band. The results showed that a Rb loading of 4.65%, significantly improves the rate of formate decomposition in the presence of steam via weakening the formate C–H bond. However, excessive rubidium loading led to the increase in stability of a second intermediate, carbonate and inhibited hydrogen transfer reactions on Pt through surface blocking and accelerated agglomeration during catalyst activation. Optimal catalytic performance was achieved with loadings in the range of 0.55–0.93% Rb, where the catalyst maintained high activity and exhibited higher stability in comparison with the unpromoted catalyst.

2020 ◽  
pp. 100602
Xinren Chen ◽  
Cuiping Wang ◽  
Yuheng Liu ◽  
Yansong Shen ◽  
Qijun Zheng ◽  

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (13) ◽  
pp. 2119
Lin Yu ◽  
Shiman Liu ◽  
Weiwei Yang ◽  
Mengying Liu

In order to elucidate the aging performance and aging mechanism of a rubber waterstop in low-temperature environments, the rubber waterstops were placed in the freezing test chamber to accelerate aging, and then we tested its tensile strength, elongation, tear strength, compression permanent deformation and hardness at different times. Additionally, the damaged specimens were tested by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. The results showed that with the growth of aging time, the mechanical properties of the rubber waterstop are reduced. At the same time, many protrusions appeared on the surface of the rubber waterstop, the C element gradually decreased, and the O element gradually increased. During the period of 72–90 days, the content of the C element in the low-temperature air environment significantly decreased compared with that in low-temperature water, while the content of O element increased significantly.

2004 ◽  
Vol 267 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 27-33 ◽  
Gary Jacobs ◽  
Adam Crawford ◽  
Leann Williams ◽  
Patricia M Patterson ◽  
Burtron H Davis

2009 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 148-169 ◽  
Céline Dessert ◽  
Jérôme Gaillardet ◽  
Bernard Dupre ◽  
Jacques Schott ◽  
Oleg S. Pokrovsky

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