The past, present, and future of the semen analysis

Michael L. Eisenberg
2018 ◽  
Vol 30 (6) ◽  
pp. 867 ◽  
M. T. Gallagher ◽  
D. J. Smith ◽  
J. C. Kirkman-Brown

The human semen sample carries a wealth of information of varying degrees of accessibility ranging from the traditional visual measures of count and motility to those that need a more computational approach, such as tracking the flagellar waveform. Although computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) options are becoming more widespread, the gold standard for clinical semen analysis requires trained laboratory staff. In this review we characterise the key attitudes towards the use of CASA and set out areas in which CASA should, and should not, be used and improved. We provide an overview of the current CASA landscape, discussing clinical uses as well as potential areas for the clinical translation of existing research technologies. Finally, we discuss where we see potential for the future of CASA, and how the integration of mathematical modelling and new technologies, such as automated flagellar tracking, may open new doors in clinical semen analysis.

Nabaa Afeef A. AL-Nawab ◽  
Israa Hasan Ali ◽  
Lobna Kadim Jassim AL-Khafaji

Infertility can be detected when the couples have not completed pregnancy after a year or more of normal coitus. So, in order to treat infertility, there are many supported reproductive techniques are in practice. The success rate of these techniques depends upon the way by which preparation of the paternal semen sample. Over the past 30 years, the manual has been standard as providing global standards and has been used extensively by research and clinical laboratories throughout the world. The spermatozoa of all placental (eutherian) mammals, including humans, are in a protective, no labile formal at ejaculation and are incapable of fertilization even if they are placed in direct contact with an oocyte. Accordingly, they must undergo a subsequent period of final maturation. during which they acquire the capacity to interact with the oocyte cumulus complex and achieve fertilization. In this article we tried to explain the most important analysis and techniques necessary for semen preparation to produce healthy and normal offspring.

1967 ◽  
Vol 31 ◽  
pp. 405
F. J. Kerr

A continuum survey of the galactic-centre region has been carried out at Parkes at 20 cm wavelength over the areal11= 355° to 5°,b11= -3° to +3° (Kerr and Sinclair 1966, 1967). This is a larger region than has been covered in such surveys in the past. The observations were done as declination scans.

1962 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
pp. 133-148 ◽  
Harold C. Urey

During the last 10 years, the writer has presented evidence indicating that the Moon was captured by the Earth and that the large collisions with its surface occurred within a surprisingly short period of time. These observations have been a continuous preoccupation during the past years and some explanation that seemed physically possible and reasonably probable has been sought.

1961 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 73-105 ◽  
John R. W. Small

It is generally accepted that history is an element of culture and the historian a member of society, thus, in Croce's aphorism, that the only true history is contemporary history. It follows from this that when there occur great changes in the contemporary scene, there must also be great changes in historiography, that the vision not merely of the present but also of the past must change.

1962 ◽  
Vol 11 (02) ◽  
pp. 137-143
M. Schwarzschild

It is perhaps one of the most important characteristics of the past decade in astronomy that the evolution of some major classes of astronomical objects has become accessible to detailed research. The theory of the evolution of individual stars has developed into a substantial body of quantitative investigations. The evolution of galaxies, particularly of our own, has clearly become a subject for serious research. Even the history of the solar system, this close-by intriguing puzzle, may soon make the transition from being a subject of speculation to being a subject of detailed study in view of the fast flow of new data obtained with new techniques, including space-craft.

1979 ◽  
Vol 46 ◽  
pp. 96-101
J.A. Graham

During the past several years, a systematic search for novae in the Magellanic Clouds has been carried out at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The Curtis Schmidt telescope, on loan to CTIO from the University of Michigan is used to obtain plates every two weeks during the observing season. An objective prism is used on the telescope. This provides additional low-dispersion spectroscopic information when a nova is discovered. The plates cover an area of 5°x5°. One plate is sufficient to cover the Small Magellanic Cloud and four are taken of the Large Magellanic Cloud with an overlap so that the central bar is included on each plate. The methods used in the search have been described by Graham and Araya (1971). In the CTIO survey, 8 novae have been discovered in the Large Cloud but none in the Small Cloud. The survey was not carried out in 1974 or 1976. During 1974, one nova was discovered in the Small Cloud by MacConnell and Sanduleak (1974).

K. T. Tokuyasu

During the past investigations of immunoferritin localization of intracellular antigens in ultrathin frozen sections, we found that the degree of negative staining required to delineate u1trastructural details was often too dense for the recognition of ferritin particles. The quality of positive staining of ultrathin frozen sections, on the other hand, has generally been far inferior to that attainable in conventional plastic embedded sections, particularly in the definition of membranes. As we discussed before, a main cause of this difficulty seemed to be the vulnerability of frozen sections to the damaging effects of air-water surface tension at the time of drying of the sections.Indeed, we found that the quality of positive staining is greatly improved when positively stained frozen sections are protected against the effects of surface tension by embedding them in thin layers of mechanically stable materials at the time of drying (unpublished).

R. E. Herfert

Studies of the nature of a surface, either metallic or nonmetallic, in the past, have been limited to the instrumentation available for these measurements. In the past, optical microscopy, replica transmission electron microscopy, electron or X-ray diffraction and optical or X-ray spectroscopy have provided the means of surface characterization. Actually, some of these techniques are not purely surface; the depth of penetration may be a few thousands of an inch. Within the last five years, instrumentation has been made available which now makes it practical for use to study the outer few 100A of layers and characterize it completely from a chemical, physical, and crystallographic standpoint. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) provides a means of viewing the surface of a material in situ to magnifications as high as 250,000X.

P.J. Dailey

The structure of insect salivary glands has been extensively investigated during the past decade; however, none have attempted scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in ultrastructural examinations of these secretory organs. This study correlates fine structure by means of SEM cryofractography with that of thin-sectioned epoxy embedded material observed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Salivary glands of Gromphadorhina portentosa were excised and immediately submerged in cold (4°C) paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde fixative1 for 2 hr, washed and post-fixed in 1 per cent 0s04 in phosphosphate buffer (4°C for 2 hr). After ethanolic dehydration half of the samples were embedded in Epon 812 for TEM and half cryofractured and subsequently critical point dried for SEM. Dried specimens were mounted on aluminum stubs and coated with approximately 150 Å of gold in a cold sputtering apparatus.Figure 1 shows a cryofractured plane through a salivary acinus revealing topographical relief of secretory vesicles.

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