Characteristic flavor formation of thermally processed N-(1-deoxy-α-d-ribulos-1-yl)-glycine: Decisive role of additional amino acids and promotional effect of glyoxal

2022 ◽  
Vol 371 ◽  
pp. 131137
Huan Zhan ◽  
Heping Cui ◽  
Junhe Yu ◽  
Khizar Hayat ◽  
Xian Wu ◽  
1981 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 189-193 ◽  
Mohamed A. Ashy ◽  
Abd El-Galil ◽  
M. Khalil ◽  
Abou-Zeid A. Abou-Zeid

K. E. Stupak ◽  

The article deals with analyzing the main streams of the education policy in Finland, which reflect the relationship between a person and society in modern socio–economic conditions. Such policy directs the system of education to change the person and his mind himself. Finland using its education system, has long before been concerned about preparing people for the future by reforming approaches to teaching in schools and higher education institutions. As a result, it has achieved world–wide recognition and top positions in various ratings have resulted. Therefore, today there is a great interest of scientists in certain issues of education functioning in Finland. Thus, G. Androshchuk, V. Butova. I. Zhernokleeva, T. Pushkareva and others study in their works the purpose and decisive role of Finland's education policy in the development of the education system. S. Grinyuk and V. Zagvozdkin pay attention to the practical the steps of reforming the Finnish system of education. T. Drobyshevsk investigates the system of providing educational services in Finland as a sector of knowledge production. L. Volynets, P. Kukharchuk consider the principles of the state education policy of Finland. L. Smolskaya examines the role of the state policy in implementing the "Finnish phenomenon"; P. Basyliuk and Yu. Kulykova, focus attention on the study of the evolution of the system of higher education in Finland; O. Scherbak reveals peculiarities of vocational education and training.

2020 ◽  
Vol 27 (9) ◽  
pp. 923-929
Gaurav Pandey ◽  
Prem Prakash Das ◽  
Vibin Ramakrishnan

Background: RADA-4 (Ac-RADARADARADARADA-NH2) is the most extensively studied and marketed self-assembling peptide, forming hydrogel, used to create defined threedimensional microenvironments for cell culture applications. Objectives: In this work, we use various biophysical techniques to investigate the length dependency of RADA aggregation and assembly. Methods: We synthesized a series of RADA-N peptides, N ranging from 1 to 4, resulting in four peptides having 4, 8, 12, and 16 amino acids in their sequence. Through a combination of various biophysical methods including thioflavin T fluorescence assay, static right angle light scattering assay, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), electron microscopy, CD, and IR spectroscopy, we have examined the role of chain-length on the self-assembly of RADA peptide. Results: Our observations show that the aggregation of ionic, charge-complementary RADA motifcontaining peptides is length-dependent, with N less than 3 are not forming spontaneous selfassemblies. Conclusion: The six biophysical experiments discussed in this paper validate the significance of chain-length on the epitaxial growth of RADA peptide self-assembly.

Dunja Apostolov-Dimitrijevic

This paper explains political democratization in Post-Milosevic Serbia, utilizing two different accounts of the democratization process: one rooted in the rational choice framework and the other in structuralism. While rational choice explains the decisive role of political leadership in overcoming path dependence, the structuralist explanations show the transnational linkages that encourage democratization in the face of domestic setbacks. This particular debate between the two types of explanations represents the larger debate concerning the role of internal factors and external linkages in propelling democratization in transitional societies. The paper concludes by integrating the two sets of explanations offered by each theoretical perspective, in order to develop a coherent understanding of Serbia's democratization.   Full text available at:

2020 ◽  
Vol 26 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S42-S42
Kohei Sugihara ◽  
Nobuhiko Kamada

Abstract Background Recent accumulating evidence suggests that amino acids have crucial roles in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), amino acid metabolism is changed in both host and the gut microbiota. Among amino acids, L-serine plays a central role in several metabolic processes that are essential for the growth and survival of both mammalian and bacterial cells. However, the role of L-serine in intestinal homeostasis and IBD remains incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary L-serine on intestinal inflammation in a murine model of colitis. Methods Specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice were fed either a control diet (amino acid-based diet) or an L-serine-deficient diet (SDD). Colitis was induced by the treatment of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The gut microbiome was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. We also evaluate the effect of dietary L-serine in germ-free mice and gnotobiotic mice that were colonized by a consortium of non-mucolytic bacterial strains or the consortium plus mucolytic bacterial strains. Results We found that the SDD exacerbated experimental colitis in SPF mice. However, the severity of colitis in SDD-fed mice was comparable to control diet-fed mice in germ-free condition, suggesting that the gut microbiota is required for exacerbation of colitis caused by the restriction of dietary L-serine. The gut microbiome analysis revealed that dietary L-serine restriction fosters the blooms of a mucus-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila and adherent-invasive Escherichia coli in the inflamed gut. Consistent with the expansion of mucolytic bacteria, SDD-fed mice showed a loss of the intestinal mucus layer. Dysfunction of the mucus barrier resulted in increased intestinal permeability, thereby leading to bacterial translocation to the intestinal mucosa, which subsequently increased the severity of colitis. The increased intestinal permeability and subsequent bacterial translocation were observed in SDD-fed gnotobiotic mice that colonized by mucolytic bacteria. In contrast, dietary L-serine restriction did not alter intestinal barrier integrity in gnotobiotic mice that colonized only by non-mucolytic bacteria. Conclusion Our results suggest that dietary L-serine regulates the integrity of the intestinal mucus barrier during inflammation by limiting the expansion of mucus degrading bacteria.

2019 ◽  
Vol 20 (18) ◽  
pp. 4416 ◽  
Lara Console ◽  
Maria Tolomeo ◽  
Matilde Colella ◽  
Maria Barile ◽  
Cesare Indiveri

Background: the SLC52A2 gene encodes for the riboflavin transporter 2 (RFVT2). This transporter is ubiquitously expressed. It mediates the transport of Riboflavin across cell membranes. Riboflavin plays a crucial role in cells since its biologically active forms, FMN and FAD, are essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids. Mutation of the Riboflavin transporters is a risk factor for anemia, cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration. Inborn mutations of SLC52A2 are associated with Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome, a rare neurological disorder characterized by infancy onset. In spite of the important metabolic and physio/pathological role of this transporter few data are available on its function and regulation. Methods: the human recombinant RFVT2 has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and reconstituted into proteoliposomes in order to characterize its activity following the [3H]Riboflavin transport. Results: the recombinant hRFVT2 showed a Km of 0.26 ± 0.07 µM and was inhibited by lumiflavin, FMN and Mg2+. The Riboflavin uptake was also regulated by Ca2+. The native protein extracted from fibroblast and reconstituted in proteoliposomes also showed inhibition by FMN and lumiflavin. Conclusions: proteoliposomes represent a suitable model to assay the RFVT2 function. It will be useful for screening the mutation of RFVT2.

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