Impact of three phenolic copigments on the stability and color evolution of five basic anthocyanins in model wine systems

2021 ◽  
pp. 131670
Xu Zhao ◽  
Fei He ◽  
Xin-Ke Zhang ◽  
Ying Shi ◽  
Chang-Qing Duan
1982 ◽  
Vol 99 ◽  
pp. 605-613
P. S. Conti

Conti: One of the main conclusions of the Wolf-Rayet symposium in Buenos Aires was that Wolf-Rayet stars are evolutionary products of massive objects. Some questions:–Do hot helium-rich stars, that are not Wolf-Rayet stars, exist?–What about the stability of helium rich stars of large mass? We know a helium rich star of ∼40 MO. Has the stability something to do with the wind?–Ring nebulae and bubbles : this seems to be a much more common phenomenon than we thought of some years age.–What is the origin of the subtypes? This is important to find a possible matching of scenarios to subtypes.

1999 ◽  
Vol 173 ◽  
pp. 309-314 ◽  
T. Fukushima

AbstractBy using the stability condition and general formulas developed by Fukushima (1998 = Paper I) we discovered that, just as in the case of the explicit symmetric multistep methods (Quinlan and Tremaine, 1990), when integrating orbital motions of celestial bodies, the implicit symmetric multistep methods used in the predictor-corrector manner lead to integration errors in position which grow linearly with the integration time if the stepsizes adopted are sufficiently small and if the number of corrections is sufficiently large, say two or three. We confirmed also that the symmetric methods (explicit or implicit) would produce the stepsize-dependent instabilities/resonances, which was discovered by A. Toomre in 1991 and confirmed by G.D. Quinlan for some high order explicit methods. Although the implicit methods require twice or more computational time for the same stepsize than the explicit symmetric ones do, they seem to be preferable since they reduce these undesirable features significantly.

Godfrey C. Hoskins ◽  
V. Williams ◽  
V. Allison

The method demonstrated is an adaptation of a proven procedure for accurately determining the magnification of light photomicrographs. Because of the stability of modern electrical lenses, the method is shown to be directly applicable for providing precise reproducibility of magnification in various models of electron microscopes.A readily recognizable area of a carbon replica of a crossed-line diffraction grating is used as a standard. The same area of the standard was photographed in Phillips EM 200, Hitachi HU-11B2, and RCA EMU 3F electron microscopes at taps representative of the range of magnification of each. Negatives from one microscope were selected as guides and printed at convenient magnifications; then negatives from each of the other microscopes were projected to register with these prints. By deferring measurement to the print rather than comparing negatives, correspondence of magnification of the specimen in the three microscopes could be brought to within 2%.

E. R. Kimmel ◽  
H. L. Anthony ◽  
W. Scheithauer

The strengthening effect at high temperature produced by a dispersed oxide phase in a metal matrix is seemingly dependent on at least two major contributors: oxide particle size and spatial distribution, and stability of the worked microstructure. These two are strongly interrelated. The stability of the microstructure is produced by polygonization of the worked structure forming low angle cell boundaries which become anchored by the dispersed oxide particles. The effect of the particles on strength is therefore twofold, in that they stabilize the worked microstructure and also hinder dislocation motion during loading.

Mihir Parikh

It is well known that the resolution of bio-molecules in a high resolution electron microscope depends not just on the physical resolving power of the instrument, but also on the stability of these molecules under the electron beam. Experimentally, the damage to the bio-molecules is commo ly monitored by the decrease in the intensity of the diffraction pattern, or more quantitatively by the decrease in the peaks of an energy loss spectrum. In the latter case the exposure, EC, to decrease the peak intensity from IO to I’O can be related to the molecular dissociation cross-section, σD, by EC = ℓn(IO /I’O) /ℓD. Qu ntitative data on damage cross-sections are just being reported, However, the microscopist needs to know the explicit dependence of damage on: (1) the molecular properties, (2) the density and characteristics of the molecular film and that of the support film, if any, (3) the temperature of the molecular film and (4) certain characteristics of the electron microscope used

Robert J. Carroll ◽  
Marvin P. Thompson ◽  
Harold M. Farrell

Milk is an unusually stable colloidal system; the stability of this system is due primarily to the formation of micelles by the major milk proteins, the caseins. Numerous models for the structure of casein micelles have been proposed; these models have been formulated on the basis of in vitro studies. Synthetic casein micelles (i.e., those formed by mixing the purified αsl- and k-caseins with Ca2+ in appropriate ratios) are dissimilar to those from freshly-drawn milks in (i) size distribution, (ii) ratio of Ca/P, and (iii) solvation (g. water/g. protein). Evidently, in vivo organization of the caseins into the micellar form occurs in-a manner which is not identical to the in vitro mode of formation.

S. Shinozaki ◽  
J. W. Sprys

In reaction sintered SiC (∽ 5um average grain size), about 15% of the grains were found to have long-period structures, which were identifiable by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In order to investigate the stability of the long-period polytypes at high temperature, crystal structures as well as microstructural changes in the long-period polytypes were analyzed as a function of time in isothermal annealing.Each polytype was analyzed by two methods: (1) Electron diffraction, and (2) Electron micrograph analysis. Fig. 1 shows microdensitometer traces of ED patterns (continuous curves) and calculated intensities (vertical lines) along 10.l row for 6H and 84R (Ramsdell notation). Intensity distributions were calculated based on the Zhdanov notation of (33) for 6H and [ (33)3 (32)2 ]3 for 84R. Because of the dynamical effect in electron diffraction, the observed intensities do not exactly coincide with those intensities obtained by structure factor calculations. Fig. 2 shows the high resolution TEM micrographs, where the striped patterns correspond to direct resolution of the structural lattice periodicities of 6H and 84R structures and the spacings shown in the figures are as expected for those structures.

M. Strojnik

Magnetic lenses operating in partial saturation offer two advantages in HVEM: they exhibit small cs and cc and their power depends little on the excitation IN. Curve H, Fig. 1, shows that the maximal axial flux density Bz max of one of the lenses investigated changes between points (3) and (4) by 5% as the excitation varies by 40%. Consequently, the designer can relax the requirements concerning the stability of the lens current supplies. Saturated lenses, however, can only be used if (i) unwanted fields along the optical axis can be controlled, (ii) 'wobbling' of the optical axis due to inhomogeneous saturation around the pole piece faces is prevented, (iii) ample ampere-turns can be squeezed into the space available, and (iv) the lens operating point covers a sufficient range of accelerating voltages.

Douglas L. Dorset

A variety of linear chain materials exist as polydisperse systems which are difficultly purified. The stability of continuous binary solid solutions assume that the Gibbs free energy of the solution is lower than that of either crystal component, a condition which includes such factors as relative molecular sizes and shapes and perhaps the symmetry of the pure component crystal structures.Although extensive studies of n-alkane miscibility have been carried out via powder X-ray diffraction of bulk samples we have begun to examine binary systems as single crystals, taking advantage of the well-known enhanced scattering cross section of matter for electrons and also the favorable projection of a paraffin crystal structure posited by epitaxial crystallization of such samples on organic substrates such as benzoic acid.

J. R. Reed ◽  
D. J. Michel ◽  
P. R. Howell

The Al6Li3Cu (T2) phase, which exhibits five-fold or icosahedral symmetry, forms through solid state precipitation in dilute Al-Li-Cu alloys. Recent studies have reported that the T2 phase transforms either during TEM examination of thin foils or following ion-milling of thin foil specimens. Related studies have shown that T2 phase transforms to a microcrystalline array of the TB phase and a dilute aluminum solid solution during in-situ heating in the TEM. The purpose of this paper is to report results from an investigation of the influence of ion-milling on the stability of the T2 phase in dilute Al-Li-Cu alloy.The 3-mm diameter TEM disc specimens were prepared from a specially melted Al-2.5%Li-2.5%Cu alloy produced by conventional procedures. The TEM specimens were solution heat treated 1 h at 550°C and aged 1000 h at 190°C in air to develop the microstructure. The disc specimens were electropolished to achieve electron transparency using a 20:80 (vol. percent) nitric acid: methanol solution at -60°C.

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