Experimentally, a reversal of chemoselectivity has been observed in catalyzed Diels–Alder reactions of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (e.g., (2E)-but-2-enal) and ketones (e.g., 2-hexen-4-one) with cyclopentadiene. Indeed, using the triflimidic Brønsted acid Tf2NH as catalyst, the reaction gave a Diels–Alder adduct derived from α,β-unsaturated ketone as a major product. On the other hand, the use of tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane B(C6F5)3 bulky Lewis acid as catalyst gave mainly the cycloadduct of α,β-unsaturated aldehyde as a major product. Our aim in the present work is to put in evidence the role of the catalyst in the reversal of the chemoselectivity of the catalyzed Diels–Alder reactions of (2E)-but-2-enal and 2-Hexen-4-one with cyclopentadiene. The calculations were performed at the ωB97XD/6-311G(d,p) level of theory and the solvent effects of dichloromethane were taken into account using the PCM solvation model. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental outcomes.
– The purpose of this paper is to obtain insight into court-referred mediation in the Israeli Labor Courts, by analyzing its processes and outcomes, as a function of tactics used by both the disputants and the mediator.
– Observation of 103 court-referred mediations, for each of which a detailed process and outcome were documented. Data on disputants' refusal to participate in the mediation was also collected. At the end of each mediation case, disputants were given a questionnaire in which they expressed their satisfaction with the outcome and their evaluation of the mediator's contribution.
– A low rate of refusal to participate in court-referred mediation was found. Also, the higher the ratio of soft tactics to pressure tactics employed (by all parties involved) during the process, the higher the rate of agreements. Mediators use significantly more soft tactics than disputants, and are more active in using tactics. The two significant variables that predict the mediation's agreement are the ratio between soft tactics to pressure tactics used by all parties, and mediator contribution to the process.
– The significant role of soft tactics in the process, outcome, and satisfaction of court-referred mediation may serve as a guideline for disputants and mediators.
– This unique research, which examines the impact of tactics on court-referred mediation, may provide added and significant theoretical insight into its process and outcome, as well as a better understanding of other “hybrid” (compulsory at the beginning, voluntary at the end) mediations.