Mitigating cognitive biases OFTEN, a hypothesis-based approach to diagnose hypotension

2022 ◽  
Vol 68 ◽  
pp. 104-106
Angela Barskaya ◽  
David S. Wang ◽  
Vivek K. Moitra
2003 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 252-265 ◽  
Manuel G. Calvo ◽  
P. Avero ◽  
M. Dolores Castillo ◽  
Juan J. Miguel-Tobal

We examined the relative contribution of specific components of multidimensional anxiety to cognitive biases in the processing of threat-related information in three experiments. Attentional bias was assessed by the emotional Stroop word color-naming task, interpretative bias by an on-line inference processing task, and explicit memory bias by sensitivity (d') and response criterion (β) from word-recognition scores. Multiple regression analyses revealed, first, that phobic anxiety and evaluative anxiety predicted selective attention to physical- and ego-threat information, respectively; cognitive anxiety predicted selective attention to both types of threat. Second, phobic anxiety predicted inhibition of inferences related to physically threatening outcomes of ambiguous situations. And, third, evaluative anxiety predicted a response bias, rather than a genuine memory bias, in the reporting of presented and nonpresented ego-threat information. Other anxiety components, such as motor and physiological anxiety, or interpersonal and daily-routines anxiety made no specific contribution to any cognitive bias. Multidimensional anxiety measures are useful for detecting content-specificity effects in cognitive biases.

2007 ◽  
Bruno L. Giordano ◽  
Stephen McAdams ◽  
John McDonnell

2014 ◽  
Daryl R. Van Tongeren ◽  
Jeffrey D. Green ◽  
Timothy L. Hulsey ◽  
Cristine H. Legare ◽  
David G. Bromley ◽  

Maria A. Milkova

Nowadays the process of information accumulation is so rapid that the concept of the usual iterative search requires revision. Being in the world of oversaturated information in order to comprehensively cover and analyze the problem under study, it is necessary to make high demands on the search methods. An innovative approach to search should flexibly take into account the large amount of already accumulated knowledge and a priori requirements for results. The results, in turn, should immediately provide a roadmap of the direction being studied with the possibility of as much detail as possible. The approach to search based on topic modeling, the so-called topic search, allows you to take into account all these requirements and thereby streamline the nature of working with information, increase the efficiency of knowledge production, avoid cognitive biases in the perception of information, which is important both on micro and macro level. In order to demonstrate an example of applying topic search, the article considers the task of analyzing an import substitution program based on patent data. The program includes plans for 22 industries and contains more than 1,500 products and technologies for the proposed import substitution. The use of patent search based on topic modeling allows to search immediately by the blocks of a priori information – terms of industrial plans for import substitution and at the output get a selection of relevant documents for each of the industries. This approach allows not only to provide a comprehensive picture of the effectiveness of the program as a whole, but also to visually obtain more detailed information about which groups of products and technologies have been patented.

2019 ◽  
Daniel Edgcumbe

Pre-existing beliefs about the background or guilt of a suspect can bias the subsequent evaluation of evidence for forensic examiners and lay people alike. This biasing effect, called the confirmation bias, has influenced legal proceedings in prominent court cases such as that of Brandon Mayfield. Today many forensic providers attempt to train their examiners against these cognitive biases. Nine hundred and forty-two participants read a fictional criminal case and received either neutral, incriminating or exonerating evidence (fingerprint, eyewitness, or DNA) before providing an initial rating of guilt. Participants then viewed ambiguous evidence (alibi, facial composite, handwriting sample or informant statement) before providing a final rating of guilt. Final guilt ratings were higher for all evidence conditions (neutral, incriminating or exonerating) following exposure to the ambiguous evidence. This provides evidence that the confirmation bias influences the evaluation of evidence.

2018 ◽  
Shelby L. Levine ◽  
Isabelle Green-Demers ◽  
Marina Milyavskaya ◽  
Kaitlyn M. Werner

The present study examined the influence of personal standards and self-critical perfectionism on depressive and anxiety symptoms over the academic year. High-school students (N=174) were surveyed in the late Fall and early Spring, assessing perfectionism in the Fall and mental health across the year in both the Fall and Spring. Path modelling was used to examine whether self-critical and personal standards perfectionism were related to changes in mental health across the school year. Controlling for mental health at the start of the year, self-critical perfectionism predicted an increase in depressive symptoms over time, whereas personal standards perfectionism was unrelated to changes in mental health. Results support that self-critical perfectionism is detrimental to mental health in adolescents, suggesting that future interventions should focus on reducing self-critical cognitive biases in youth.

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