Construction and application of the Synechocystis sp . PCC6803-ftnA in microbial contamination control in a coupled cultivation and wastewater treatment

2016 ◽  
Vol 46 ◽  
pp. 174-181 ◽  
Yalei Zhang ◽  
Chunmin Zhang ◽  
Xuefei Zhou ◽  
Zheng Shen ◽  
Fangchao Zhao ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 73 ◽  
pp. 05018
Nurcholis ◽  
Dirwan Muchlis

The purpose of this research is to know the contamination of waste water that happened in slaughterhouse (RPH) city of merauke. Data were obtained based on surveys and field observations and the sample used was RPH water waste each in repeat as many as 6 replications. Data analysis was done descriptively by comparing the result obtained with the standard of quality which have been determined. The results showed that the contamination of waste water all exceeded the quality standard except at pH value. The ALT content of wastewater in RPH 2790 x 104 and contains E. Coli and Salmonella microbes. The high content of BOD, COD, TTS, Ammonia and microbial contamination is thought to be due to the absence of wastewater treatment installation (IPAL) at RPH in accordance with the standard. Proper handling of ammonia waste can reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere.

2020 ◽  
Jean O'Dwyer ◽  
John Weatherill ◽  
Carlos Chique ◽  
Paul Hynds

<p>Global climate change models predict an increase in both the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, including prolonged drought conditions, thus posing a unique set of challenges for regions traditionally unaccustomed to severe climate phenomena. This is particularly significant for the occurrence of severe drought events in areas characterised by temperate maritime climates, such as the Republic of Ireland (ROI). While numerous studies have explored the impacts of drought on groundwater levels and chemical contamination, few studies have sought to investigate the impacts of sporadic drought events on the microbial quality of groundwater for human consumption. Accordingly, the 2018 (June-August) European drought event represented a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of prolonged low rainfall and elevated temperature (relative to seasonal means) on the incidence of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) among unregulated domestic groundwater supplies in the ROI.</p><p>A dual-sampling fieldwork regime (during and post-event) of private wells (n=74) and subsequent risk factor (logistic regression) and bivariate analyses were used to evaluate the potential role of meteorological and site specific (hydrogeology, contaminant sources etc.) conditions on the incidence of microbial contamination. During absolute drought conditions (≥15 days characterised by no measureable precipitation, June 2018), the sampled cohort exhibited a significantly decreased risk of microbial contamination (OR: 0.356, p = 0.024) with 12.2% (n = 9/74) of supplies contaminated with Escherichia coli (E. coli), increasing to 28.4% (n = 21/74) upon abatement of drought conditions (October 2018). No analysed risk factors were associated with E. coli presence at the 95% confidence level, although, the presence of onsite domestic wastewater treatment systems (U = 1.03 p = 0.057) approached statistical significance during the drought. Findings suggest that the 2018 European drought served to decrease background levels of FIO within private wells in the ROI, likely due to reduced hydraulic loading from the surface, soil moisture deficits and consequently, significantly decreased bacterial survival. Results would seem to reiterate the significance of onsite domestic wastewater treatment systems as a source of subsurface contaminants in Ireland. The presented opportunistic field study provides a critical characterization of the impacts of unprecedented drought events on microbiological water quality in domestic groundwater supplies in temperate regions, and may be used by sanitary/environmental engineers, hydrologists, hydrogeologists, policy-makers, planners and healthcare practitioners to safeguard against the future human health effects of climate change and extreme weather events.   </p>

Francesco Romano ◽  
Samanta Milani ◽  
Roberto Ricci ◽  
Cesare Maria Joppolo

In Operating Theatres (OT), the ventilation system plays an important role in controlling airborne contamination and reducing the risks of Surgical Site Infections (SSIs). The air cleanliness is really crucial in this field and different measurements are used in order to characterize the situation in terms of both airborne microbiological pollutants and particle size and concentration. Although the ventilation systems and airborne contamination are strictly linked, different air diffusion schemes (in particular, the Partial Unidirectional Airflow, P-UDAF, and the Mixing Airflow, MAF) and various design parameters are used, and there is still no consensus on real performance and optimum solutions. This study presents measurements procedures and results obtained during Inspection and Periodic Performance Testing (1228 observations) in a large sample of Italian OTs (175 OTs in 31 Italian hospitals) in their operative life (period from 2010 to 2018). The inspections were made after a cleaning procedure, both in “at-rest” conditions and “in operation” state. Inert and microbial contamination data (in air and on surfaces) are analyzed and commented according to four relevant air diffusion schemes and design classes. Related data on Recovery Time (RT) and personnel presence were picked up and are commented. The results confirm that the ventilation systems are able to maintain the targeted performance levels in the OT operative life. However, they attest that significant differences in real OT contamination control capabilities do exist and could be ascribed to various design choices and to different operation and maintenance practices. The study shows and confirms that the air diffusion scheme and the design airflow rate are critical factors. Beside large variations in measurements, the performance values, in terms of control of airborne particle and microbial contamination (in air and on surfaces), for P-UDAF systems are better than those that were assessed for the MAF air diffusion solution. The average performances do increase with increasing airflows, and the results offer a better insight on this relationship leading to some possible optimization.

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