scholarly journals Influence of soil characteristics and metal(loid)s on antibiotic resistance genes in green stormwater infrastructure in Southern California

2022 ◽  
Vol 424 ◽  
pp. 127469
Wei-Cheng Hung ◽  
Megyn Rugh ◽  
Marina Feraud ◽  
Sumant Avasarala ◽  
Jessica Kurylo ◽  
2016 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 22 ◽  
Navindra Kumari Palanisamy ◽  
Parasakthi Navaratnam ◽  
Shamala Devi Sekaran

Introduction: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important bacterial pathogen, causing respiratory infection. Penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae is associated with alterations in the penicillin binding proteins, while resistance to macrolides is conferred either by the modification of the ribosomal target site or efflux mechanism. This study aimed to characterize S. pneumoniae and its antibiotic resistance genes using 2 sets of multiplex PCRs. Methods: A quintuplex and triplex PCR was used to characterize the pbp1A, ermB, gyrA, ply, and the mefE genes. Fifty-eight penicillin sensitive strains (PSSP), 36 penicillin intermediate strains (PISP) and 26 penicillin resistance strains (PRSP) were used. Results: Alteration in pbp1A was only observed in PISP and PRSP strains, while PCR amplification of the ermB or mefE was observed only in strains with reduced susceptibility to erythromycin. The assay was found to be sensitive as simulated blood cultures showed the lowest level of detection to be 10cfu. Conclusions: As predicted, the assay was able to differentiate penicillin susceptible from the non-susceptible strains based on the detection of the pbp1A gene, which correlated with the MIC value of the strains.

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