Dynamical variations of the terrestrial water cycle components and the influences of the climate factors over the Aral Sea Basin through multiple datasets

2022 ◽  
Vol 604 ◽  
pp. 127270
Zengyun Hu ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Qiming Zhou ◽  
Gang Yin ◽  
Jun Liu
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 2923
Xuewen Yang ◽  
Ninglian Wang ◽  
Qian Liang ◽  
An’an Chen ◽  
Yuwei Wu

Assessing the impacts of human activities on the variations in terrestrial water storage (TWS) is essential for water resource management, particularly in regions like the Aral Sea Basin which suffers from severe water scarcity. In this study, the variations in TWS anomalies (TWSA) of the Aral Sea Basin during the period of April 2002 to June 2017 were analyzed using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Noah model outputs. The impacts of human activities on TWS variations were further quantified through the variations in TWS components and the comparison of TWS obtained from GRACE and GLDAS. The results indicate that TWSA of the entire Aral Sea Basin derived from GRACE experienced a significant decreasing trend of 4.12 ± 1.79 mm/year (7.07 ± 3.07 km3/year) from 2002 to 2017. Trends in individual TWS components indicate that the reduction in TWS of the Aral Sea Basin was primarily attributed to surface water loss, followed by groundwater depletion, which account for ~53.16% and 11.65 ± 45.39 to 42.48 ± 54.61% of the total loss of TWS, respectively. Precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET) both exhibited increasing trends, indicating that ET played a dominant role in TWS depletion from the perspective of water balance. The variations in ET and TWS induced by human activities contributed ~45.54% and ~75.24% to those in total ET and TWS of the Aral Sea Basin, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (7) ◽  
pp. 1448
Lei Gao ◽  
Jinbiao Ma ◽  
Yonghong Liu ◽  
Yin Huang ◽  
Osama Abdalla Abdelshafy Mohamad ◽  

Endophytes associated with halophytes may contribute to the host’s adaptation to adverse environmental conditions through improving their stress tolerance and protecting them from various soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the diversity and antifungal activity of endophytic bacteria associated with halophytic samples growing on the shore of the western Aral Sea in Uzbekistan were investigated. The endophytic bacteria were isolated from the nine halophytic samples by using the culture-dependent method and identified according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The screening of endophytic bacterial isolates with the ability to inhibit pathogenic fungi was completed by the plate confrontation method. A total of 289 endophytic bacterial isolates were isolated from the nine halophytes, and they belong to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. The predominant genera of the isolated endophytic bacteria were Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Streptomyces, accounting for 38.5%, 24.7%, and 12.5% of the total number of isolates, respectively. The comparative analysis indicated that the isolation effect was better for the sample S8, with the highest diversity and richness indices. The diversity index of the sample S7 was the lowest, while the richness index of samples S5 and S6 was the lowest. By comparing the isolation effect of 12 different media, it was found that the M7 medium had the best performance for isolating endophytic bacteria associated with halophytes in the western Aral Sea Basin. In addition, the results showed that only a few isolates have the ability to produce ex-enzymes, and eight and four endophytic bacterial isolates exhibited significant inhibition to the growth of Valsa mali and Verticillium dahlia, respectively. The results of this study indicated that halophytes are an important source for the selection of microbes that may protect plant from soil-borne pathogens.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 199
Olimjon Saidmamatov ◽  
Inna Rudenko ◽  
Urs Baier ◽  
Elbek Khodjaniyazov

Energy plays an essential role in the modern society and can serve as one of the vital parameters of socio-economic development. Despite developments in technology, over three billion persons living in rural parts of the low- and middle-income countries continue to cover their energy needs for cooking through traditional ways by burning biomass resources. This paper as a case study focuses on the Aral Sea region of Uzbekistan, possessing a well-developed agricultural production with high livestock numbers and intensive crop production. The manure of the livestock farms is not used efficiently and the energy supply of the farms depends primarily on centrally produced gas and electricity. Some areas are not yet connected to the gas grid. Agriculture causes huge environmental damages in its current form. The benefit of biogas production would therefore be fivefold: (1) local energy source, (2) mitigation of environmental impacts, (3) reducing CH4-emissions, (4) producing organic fertilizer as a side product and (5) additional earnings for farmers.

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