The long-term health and economic consequences of improved property rights

2021 ◽  
Vol 201 ◽  
pp. 104492
Huayu Xu
2016 ◽  
Vol 76 (2) ◽  
pp. 559-594 ◽  
Marco Casari ◽  
Maurizio Lisciandra

Starting from the Medieval period, women in the Italian Alps experienced a progressive erosion in property rights over the commons. We collected documents about the evolution of inheritance regulations on collective land issued by hundreds of villages over a period of six centuries (thirteenth-nineteenth). Based on this original dataset, we provide a long-term perspective of decentralized institutional change in which gender-biased inheritance systems emerged as a defensive measure to preserve the wealth of village insiders. This institutional change also had implications for the population growth, marriage strategies, and the protection from economic shocks.

2019 ◽  
Vol 5 (12) ◽  
pp. eaay1610 ◽  
Jens Hainmueller ◽  
Dominik Hangartner ◽  
Dalston Ward

We provide evidence that citizenship catalyzes the long-term economic integration of immigrants. Despite the relevance of citizenship policy to immigrant integration, we lack a reliable understanding of the economic consequences of acquiring citizenship. To overcome nonrandom selection into naturalization, we exploit the quasi-random assignment of citizenship in Swiss municipalities that held referendums to decide the outcome of individual naturalization applications. Our data combine individual-level referendum results with detailed social security records from the Swiss authorities. This approach allows us to compare the long-term earnings of otherwise similar immigrants who barely won or lost their referendum. We find that winning Swiss citizenship in the referendum increased annual earnings by an average of approximately 5000 U.S. dollars over the subsequent 15 years. This effect is concentrated among more marginalized immigrants.

2020 ◽  
Vol 45 (8) ◽  
pp. 579-585 ◽  
David Anthony Provenzano ◽  
B Todd Sitzman ◽  
Samuel Ambrose Florentino ◽  
Glenn A Buterbaugh

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant clinical and economic consequences for medical practices of all specialties across the nation. Although the clinical implications are of the utmost importance, the economic consequences have also been serious and resulted in substantial damage to the US healthcare system, including pain practices. Outpatient pain practices have had to significantly change their clinical care pathways, including the incorporation of telemedicine. Elective medical and interventional care has been postponed. For the most part, ambulatory surgical centers have had to cease operations. As patient volumes have decreased for non-emergent elective care, the financial indicators have deteriorated. This review article will provide insight into solutions to mitigate the clinical and economic challenges induced by COVID-19. Undoubtedly, the COVID-19 pandemic will have short-term and long-term implications for all medical practices and facilities. In order to survive, medical practices will need dynamic, operational, and creative strategic plans to mitigate the disruption in medical care and pathways for successful reintegration of clinical and surgical practice.

2017 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 151
Anik Nur Khaninah ◽  
M. Widjanarko

The objective of this study is to determine the forms of aggressive behavior that received by victims of courtship violence and the factors that causes violence in long term courtship. The method used in this study is a qualitative research method with a phenomenological approach using data collection techniques by observing and interviewing. The sampling technique used in this study is snowball technique. Data analysis techniques follow this stages: analyzing all the data, categorizing data, preparing the psychological dynamics, connecting with the theoretical basis and drawing conclusions. Based on the results of the study, it shows the forms of aggressive behavior that received by victims of violence in courtship is verbal or symbolic aggression behavior, such as harsh words, words that is not worth to listen, mocking/scolding, threatening, insisting, and limiting intercommunication. In case of violation of property rights, is the property of the subjects used at one’s pleasure by their mate without permission. Physical assault is in the form of forced asking or confiscated subject as well as hitting or knocking head. While the reason for the victims to survive is feeling shy because everyone already knows their courtship relationship.Besides, the victim thinks and hopes theirmatewould be better and their relationshipwould be improved.

2019 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-40
Guanghua Yu

AbstractThis article examines the evolution of democratic practice in Brazil. The article begins with a discussion on the country’s performance in terms of social equality, violence, and weak economy after the consolidation of democracy in 1985. Based on historical evidence, the article offers explanations concerning the weak performance in Brazil. The case of Brazil provides a challenge to the theory of open access order of North and his colleagues in the sense that open access to political organizations and activities does not necessarily lead to either better political representation or better economic performance. The case of Brazil also shows that open access to economic organizations and activities in the absence of the necessary institutions in the areas of property rights protection and contract enforcement, the financial market, the rule of law, and human resources accumulation does not lead to long-term economic growth.

2010 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Margreet J Teune ◽  
Aleid G van Wassenaer ◽  
Ben Willem J Mol ◽  
Brent C Opmeer

Stroke ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 50 (Suppl_1) ◽  
Aravind Ganesh ◽  
Ramon Luengo-Fernandez ◽  
Sarah T Pendlebury ◽  
Peter M Rothwell ◽  

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