Summoning the suspect is one step in the process of investigation in the criminal justice system which had been regulated in the Criminal Code Procedure and in other special laws. However, presenting the suspect of the member of the Parliament before the Court is the problematic one. This is because in reality, it does not need a President permit but legally it does. The problem is whether pre-senting the suspect before the court without a Presidential Permit is not against the law. The findings showed that the regulation dealing with the summoning of the parliament member suspected of cor-ruption is not necessarily required. It is because the crime suspected to the members of House of Rep-resentative is included in the special crime which is stipulated the 2002 Law Number 30 deals with Corruption Eradication Commission Article 46 paragraph (1) with the elucidation in junction to Arti-cle 245 paragraph (3) sub paragraph c.
This article examines U.S. Supreme Court decisions regarding the constitutionality of taxation of the mass media. It concludes that the Court's 1991 decision in Leathers v. Medlock does not represent a substantial change in the law governing taxation of the media but is one step in the evolution of two distinct lines of media taxation cases. The article also examines how the lower courts have applied Leathers in the six years since it was decided. The lower court decisions uniformly - although not explicitly - recognize the two lines. What is needed now is explicit recognition by both the Supreme Court and the lower courts.
AbstractThe relationship between documents emanating from the world of judicial practice and model formulae recorded in juristic manuals has been viewed differentially by modern scholars. Whereas Joseph Schacht posited the existence of a close relationship between the the realia of judicial practice and juristic manuals, others did not. Going one step beyond Schacht, I argue that the relationship between model ShurūṬ and documents originating in practice was dialectical, involving complex processes of editing, interpolation and selection, processes that functioned — almost imperceptibly — within the conventional legal dynamics of the madhhab. If this view is accepted, it follows that the conventional wisdom regarding a gap between Islamic legal doctrine and judicial practice is untenable, at least in the areas of the law covered by ShurūṬ manuals.
There are several methods in determining lineage (al-Nasab) in Islam such as al-firasy, iqrar, bayyinah, qiyafah and qur'ah. Islamic countries like Maghribi and Indonesia has been one step forward in strengthening the country’s Judicial Institution by implementing other option besides al-firasy for the matter of lineage determination especially for the offspring who does not have right in lineage through only al-firasy or in other word, a child that born out of wedlock. Therefore, observations are done to see Islamic views that are used by judicial system in Maghribi and Indonesia in drafting the law and deciding the implementations of methods for cases involving lineage determination. This observation also includes the comparisons on how the law is implemented legislatively on the Islamic society in Maghribi and Indonesia. Literature review method is used and the analysis details is via content analysis method. This is an initiative to assist further discussion on the issue of lineage determination in Malaysia.
Terdapat beberapa kaedah penetapan nasab dalam Islam seperti al-firasy, iqrar, bayyinah, qiyafah dan qur’ah. Negara-negara Islam seperti Maghribi dan Indonesia telah terkehadapan dalam memperkukuhkan institusi kehakiman dengan mengambil kaedah lain selain al-firasy untuk urusan penasaban anak, terutama bagi anak yang tidak mempunyai hak penasaban melalui al-firasy semata-mata atau lebih tepat, anak tidak sah taraf. Justeru, penelitian dilakukan untuk melihat hujah syarak yang diguna pakai oleh kehakiman Maghribi dan Indonesia dalam menggubal undang-undang dan memutuskan penggunaan sesuatu kaedah dalam kes pensabitan nasab. Penelitian ini juga merangkumi perbandingan bentuk perlaksanaan di sudut perundangan berkaitan penasaban dalam masyarakat Islam di Maghribi dan di Indonesia. Metode kajian literatur digunakan dan perincian analisa data melalui kaedah analisis kandungan. Usaha ini adalah untuk membantu ke arah perbincangan lanjut mengenai isu penasaban di Malaysia.
The Constitutional Court is one of the perpetrators of judicial power, in addition to the Supreme Court as referred to in Article 24 paragraph (2) of the 1945 Constitution. The Constitutional Court is also bound to the general principle of an independent judicial power, free from the influence of other institutions in enforcing law and justice. The Constitutional Court is the first and last level judicial body, or it can be said that it is the only judicial body whose decisions are final and binding. The existence of the Constitutional Court is at the same time to maintain the implementation of a stable state government and is also a correction to the experience of constitutional life in the past caused by multiple interpretations of the constitution. Judicial review towards the constitution is one of the authorities of the Constitutional Court that attracted attention. This shows that there has also been a shift in the doctrine of the parliamentary supremacy towards the doctrine of the supremacy of the constitution. The law was previously inviolable, but now the existence of a law is questionable in its alignment with the Constitution. The authority to examine the Law towards the Constitution is the authority of the Constitutional Court as the guardian of the constitution. This authority is carried out to safeguard the provisions of the Act so that it does not conflict with the constitution and / or impair the constitutional rights of citizens. This shows that the judicial review towards the Constitution carried out by the Constitutional Court is basically also to provide protection for human rights.
N-Substituted dipropargylamines that are suitable as functionalized linkers for peptide stapling can be synthesized in one step under mild conditions from commercially available starting materials (41% to quantitative yield).