Comparative investigation of cell cycle and immunomodulatory genes in mucosal and cutaneous melanomas: preliminary data suggest a potential promising clinical role for p16 and the PD-1/PD-L1 axis

2021 ◽  
pp. 153689
Niklas Wrede ◽  
Inga Hoffmann ◽  
Claudia Vollbrecht ◽  
Ines Koch ◽  
Peggy Wolkenstein ◽  
Blood ◽  
2008 ◽  
Vol 112 (11) ◽  
pp. 1923-1923 ◽  
Agustin Rodriguez-Gonzalez ◽  
Tiffany Simms-Waldrip ◽  
Alan K. Ikeda ◽  
Tara Lin ◽  
Brett Lomenick ◽  

Abstract Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of childhood cancer. Despite effective chemotherapy, 25 to 30% of children will relapse. In adults, less than 30% of patients with ALL are cured. Therefore, it is critical that we identify novel therapies to treat ALL. We are studying the effects of a small molecule compound known as tubacin (tubulin acetylation inducer) that selectively inhibits histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) resulting in increased acetylation of alpha-tubulin by inhibiting one of the two catalytic domains of HDAC6. We found that treatment of both pre-B and T-ALL cell lines with tubacin inhibits growth at very low micromolar concentrations (Jurkat IC50=1μM, Loucy IC50=3μM, REH IC50=2μM, Nalm6 IC50=5μM). We also determined that there is a therapeutic window, since tubacin inhibits the growth of normal bone marrow progenitor cells in methylcellulose colony assays at 20μM and normal human lymphocytes cultured in IL-2 at an IC50 of 16μM. We next tested the effects of tubacin in vivo. SCID mice injected with pre-B ALL Nalm-6 cells were treated with tubacin intraperitoneally at 50 mg/kg/day. Preliminary data using bioluminescence imaging in SCID mouse models showed that tubacin inhibited leukemic progression in vivo. To understand the mechanism of tubacin in ALL cells, we examined both apoptosis and cell cycle regulation by PARP cleavage, activation of caspases, and propidium iodide staining with FACs analysis. Tubacin induced apoptosis of pre-B and T-ALL cells within 12 hours of treatment. There was no effect on cell cycle progression, Retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, or p21 upregulation, which have been observed with other HDAC inhibitors. Unlike in myeloma cells, tubacin did not increase JunK/SAPK activation or accumulation of acetylated HSP90 in ALL cells. Tubacin treatment resulted in accumulation of acetylated alpha-tubulin after 1 hour and an increase in polyubiquitinated proteins after 7 hours. To address potential mechanisms of tubacin in ALL, we tested whether Na+/K+ ATPase could be contributing to apoptosis. Previous work has shown that treatment with L-glutamate dissociates the Na+/K+ ATPase complex from acetylated tubulin and restores ATPase enzymatic activity. We hypothesized that the accumulation of acetylated tubulin could potentially inhibit the activity of the cytosolic Na/K ATPase pump, which could be reversed by treatment with 1mM sodium glutamate. Preliminary data demonstrate that we can partially rescue the effects of tubacin on PARP cleavage with sodium glutamate. These results suggest that tubacin induces apoptosis through a novel pathway in ALL cells and provide rationale for targeting the aggresome pathway to treat ALL in the future.

Blood ◽  
2008 ◽  
Vol 112 (11) ◽  
pp. 1325-1325
Chris L Cochrane ◽  
Hind Medyouf ◽  
Andrew P. Weng

Abstract The highly conserved Notch gene is activated by mutation in more than half of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases. The Notch protein is a transmembrane receptor which, upon binding of its ligand, is cleaved in a series of proteolytic steps releasing the intracellular portion (ICN) to translocate to the nucleus where it acts as a transcriptional activator for target genes such as HES1, Deltex, preTalpha, and c-Myc. To better understand the mechanism by which Notch causes leukemogenesis, microarray gene expression profiling experiments where conducted on five human Notch signaling-dependent T-ALL cell lines which where either mock-treated or treated with a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) to prevent the release of Notch from the membrane. The Polycomb Group gene PCGF5 was identified as one of the genes most strongly downregulated upon Notch inhibition. This regulation was subsequently confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR in both human and mouse leukemia cell lines. Our interest in this gene was encouraged by its homology to the well-known oncogene Bmi-1, which acts to modify chromatin and silence expression of several genes including the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p16 and p19ARF within the CDKN2a locus. Interestingly, we found that inhibition of Notch signaling by GSI treatment in both human and mouse leukemia cells resulted in an increase of both p16 and p19ARF at the mRNA and protein levels. This suggested that Notch may be responsible for maintaining expression of a transcriptional repressor that suppresses p16 and p19ARF. We hypothesize that PCGF5 may be acting in a manner analogous to Bmi-1 in this cellular context and thus mediating p16/p19ARF repression. Studies to test this hypothesis are currently in progress. To further investigate the role of PCGF5 in hematopoiesis, mouse bone marrow progenitors were transduced with retrovirus to express PCGF5 constitutively and transplanted into lethally irradiated recipients. Our results show long term reconstitution by PCGF5-expressing cells with as yet no evidence of PCGF5-induced hematopoeitic malignancy in a small cohort up to 6 months post-transplant. However, we did observe cells expressing high levels of PCGF5 to be skewed toward myeloid lineages, while mid-level expressing cells develop efficiently into lymphocytes. We detected no defects in B cell maturation; however, PCGF5-expressing T cell numbers were significantly lower than controls in the peripheral blood and spleen of recipient animals. Consistent with this observation, fetal thymic organ culture of PCGF5-transduced fetal liver hematopoietic progenitors showed accumulation in the early double negative thymocyte stages. Additionally, we found PCGF5-expressing B and T lymphocytes to be larger than control cells, and preliminary data suggests these cells may be arrested in G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Biochemical studies are also in progress to assess participation of PCGF5 in the Polycomb Repressive Complex PRC-1 and its effect on chromatin structure. In sum, these preliminary data suggest enforced PCGF5 expression, though not oncogenic, alters normal lymphoid/myeloid fate selection by hematopoietic progenitors and may affect lymphoid cell size by altering cell cycle progression.

Blood ◽  
2010 ◽  
Vol 116 (21) ◽  
pp. 2999-2999 ◽  
Samantha Pozzi ◽  
Diana Cirstea ◽  
Loredana Santo ◽  
Doris M Nabikejje ◽  
Kishan Patel ◽  

Abstract Abstract 2999 Multiple myeloma (MM) is a treatable but incurable hematological malignancy and novel targeted therapies are under investigation. MM is characterized by dysregulation of the cell cycle, consequent to the overexpression of cyclins and their related kinases, the cyclins dependent kinases (CDK), a group of Ser/Thr proteine kinases. CDKs represent a promising therapeutic target, and inhibitors have been developed for anticancer treatment. We have previously studied seliciclib in the context of MM. CYC065, a second generation CDK inhibitor is the more potent derivative of seliciclib. It is mainly active on CDK 2, 5 and 9, involved in progression of the cell cycle and protein transcription. It has already shown promising results in preclinical studies in breast cancer and acute leukemia. We tested CYC065 in in vitro experiments in MM. Our preliminary data in 7 MM cell lines showed cytotoxicity of CYC065, both in MM cell lines sensitive as well as resistant to conventional chemotherapy, with an IC50 ranging between 0.06 and 2μ M, at 24 and 48h. Tritiated thymidine uptake assay confirmed the antiproliferative effects of CYC065 in MM, and its ability to overcome the growth advantage conferred by co-culture with bone marrow stromal cells derived from MM patients, and cytokines like interleukin 6 (10ng/ml) and insulin like growth factor-1 (50ng/ml). The anti-proliferative effect was evident both at 24 and 48h, starting at concentrations as low as 0.015μ M. The AnnexinV/PI assay in the MM1.s cell line confirmed CYC065's ability to induce apoptosis in a time dependent manner starting at 9 hours of treatment, at a concentration of 0.125 μ M, inducing 82% of apoptosis after 48h of exposure. Cell cycle analysis in the same MM1.s cell line showed an increase of subG1 phase, starting at 9 hours of treatment, at 0.125 μ M of CYC065. Preliminary results of western blot analysis confirmed the apoptotic effect of CYC065 in the MM1s cell line, highlighted by the cleavage of caspase 3, 8, 9 and PARP. The compound was tested in primary CD138+ cells isolated from three refractory MM patients, confirming its efficacy at 0.125 μ M, both at 24 and 48h. Comparative analysis in PBMCs from normal donors, for the evaluation of the drug toxicity is ongoing and will be presented. In conclusion our preliminary data confirm the efficacy of CYC065 in MM cell lines and primary MM cells, at nanomolar concentrations. Ongoing mechanistic and in vivo studies will delineate its role in the now increasing spectrum of CDK inhibitors in MM and better define its potential for clinical development in MM. Disclosures: Green: Cyclacel: Employment. Anderson:Millennium Pharmaceuticals: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau. Scadden:Fate Therapeutics: Consultancy, Equity Ownership, Patents & Royalties. Raje:Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Astra Zeneca: Research Funding; Acetylon: Research Funding.

1998 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 93-101
Stefano Nigro ◽  
Anna Rapallo ◽  
Angela Di Vinci ◽  
Elio Geido ◽  
Roberto Orecchia ◽  

A monoclonal antibody (AS-2) raised by using isolated nuclei from a human erythroleukemia cell line as immunogen is described.AS-2 was of IgM type and recognized proteins present in both isolated cytoplasms and nuclei. The molecular weight of the AS-2 recognized proteins in the cytoplasm was 200 kDa and 70 and 60 kDa in the nucleus. The relative amount of these proteins were measured simultaneously with DNA content by flow cytometry. We found the highest protein content (or stainability) for both cells and nuclei in late-G1, S and G2, at approximately the same level, and the lowest content in M and early-G1. Sorting based on DNA content and AS-2 associated fluorescence helped identifying the staining pattern of cells and nuclei. Interphase isolated nuclei and cell cytoplasms were characterized by interdispersed staining over the entire surfaces while mitoses showed two dots only. The present preliminary data indicate that the proteins recognized by the AS-2 monoclonal are cell cycle related and suggest that in mitoses they are associated with the centrosomes.

Tumor Biology ◽  
2014 ◽  
Vol 36 (2) ◽  
pp. 747-756 ◽  
Sujie Ni ◽  
Junya Zhu ◽  
Jianguo Zhang ◽  
Shu Zhang ◽  
Mei Li ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-23
Lun Li ◽  
Feng Xu ◽  
Pingfang Xie ◽  
Liqin Yuan ◽  
Meirong Zhou

The role of PTPRT in breast cancer was not comprehensively explored and well analyzed. Our study comprehensively searched available databases to analyze the clinical role of PTPRT in breast cancer. We found PTPRT was an antioncogene and could be used to distinguish different stages, age groups, molecular types, and grades for breast cancer. PTPRT might be primary resistance biomarkers for taxane, anthracycline, and ixabepilone but not be acquired resistance biomarkers. Higher PTPRT expression levels were associated with longer overall survival and recurrence-free survival. PTPRT was negatively associated with Ki67 and CDK4/6 but positively associated with BCL-2. PTPRT might be associated with cell cycle and microtubule, and tumor infiltration in B cell and macrophage cell. PTPRT could predict chemotherapy effectiveness and prognosis for breast cancer patients. PTPRT might inhibit tumor growth via disrupting the microtubule dynamics and cell cycle in breast cancer.

2015 ◽  
Vol 61 (3) ◽  
pp. 795-805 ◽  
Huiyuan Qiu ◽  
Xiubing Zhang ◽  
Wenkai Ni ◽  
Weidong Shi ◽  
Hui Fan ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Ning Yang ◽  
Jiawen Wu ◽  
Tiancheng Zhang ◽  
Fan Yang ◽  
Jinyan Shao ◽  

Objective. Prostate cancer (PCa) is considered the most serious cancer in the world. Nevertheless, the accuracy of current biomarkers, such as pathological staging, Gleason’s score, and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, is limited. FOXO1 is a key downstream effector of PTEN and a tumor suppressor in PCA, which has been reported extensively. However, the clinical relevance of FOXO1 in PCa remains unclear. Methods. In this study, we first detected its expression in four public databases to explore the clinical role of FOXO1. Verification of the knockdown effect of FOXO1 siRNA was performed by real-time PCR analysis. Changes in cell viability were assessed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays. In addition, we verified the effect of FOXO1 on the PCa cell cycle using a cell cycle assay. Results. Herein, we found that FOXO1 was significantly downregulated in PCa tissues and was significantly associated with Gleason’s score, age, biochemical recurrence (BCR), and lymph node (LN) status, while FOXO1 expression was independent of pathological staging and preoperative PSA levels. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that PCA patients with high FOXO1 expression were less likely to develop BCR compared with patients with low FOXO1 expression. In terms of function, FOXO1 inhibition significantly promoted the proliferation and cell cycle progression of PCa cells. Conclusions. In summary, our study suggests that FOXO1 may be one of the prognostic factors that describe the risk of PCa for BCR. These results suggest that FOXO1 may be a therapeutic target for PCa.

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