scholarly journals How Europeans move: a moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sitting time paradox in the European Union

Public Health ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 203 ◽  
pp. 1-8
A. Moreno-Llamas ◽  
J. García-Mayor ◽  
E. De la Cruz-Sánchez
Kaja Meh ◽  
Gregor Jurak ◽  
Maroje Sorić ◽  
Paulo Rocha ◽  
Vedrana Sember

Current lifestyles are marked by sedentary behaviour; thus, it is of great importance for policymaking to have valid and reliable tools to measure sedentary behaviour in order to combat it. Therefore, the aim of this review and meta-analysis is to critically review, assess, and compile the reliability, criterion validity, and construct validity of the single-item sedentary behaviour questions within national language versions of most commonly used international physical activity questionnaires for adults in the European Union: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. A total of 1749 records were screened, 287 full-text papers were read, and 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results and quality of studies were evaluated by the Quality Assessment of Physical Activity Questionnaires checklist. Meta-analysis indicated moderate to high reliability (rw = 0.59) and concurrent validity (rw = 0.55) of national language versions of single-item sedentary behaviour questions. Criterion validity was rather low (rw = 0.23) but in concordance with previous studies. The risk of bias analysis highlighted the poor reporting of methods and results, with a total bias score of 0.42. Thus, we recommend using multi-item SB questionnaires and smart trackers for providing information on SB rather than single-item sedentary behaviour questions in physical activity questionnaires.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
J. López-Fernández ◽  
A. López-Valenciano ◽  
X. Mayo ◽  
G. Liguori ◽  
M. A. Lamb ◽  

Abstract Background Public health organizations have been alerted to the high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) among adolescents as well as to the health and social consequences of excess sedentary time. However, SB changes of the European Union (EU) adolescents over time have not been reported yet. This study aimed to identify SB of the EU adolescents (15–17 years) in four-time points (2002, 2005, 2013 and 2017) and to analyse the prevalence of SB according to the sex. Methods SB of 2542 adolescents (1335 boys and 1207 girls) as a whole sample and country-by-country was analysed in 2002, 2005, 2013, and 2017 using the Sport and Physical Activity EU Special Eurobarometers’ data. SB was measured using the sitting time question from the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), such that 4h30min of daily sitting time was the delineating point to determine excess SB behaviour (≥4h30min of sitting time) or not (≤4h30min of sitting time). A χ2 test was used to compare the prevalence of SB between survey years. Furthermore, SB prevalence between sexes was analysed using a Z-Score test for two population proportions. Results The prevalence of SB among EU adolescents across each of the four survey years ranged from 74.2 and 76.8%, rates that are considered high. High levels of SB were also displayed by both sexes (girls: 76.8 to 81.2%; boys: 71.7 to 76.7%). No significant differences in the prevalence of SB among years (p > 0.05) were found for the whole sample, and for either girls or boys. Also, no significant differences in the prevalence of SB between girls and boys were found. Conclusion The SB prevalence in European adolescents is extremely high (76.8% in 2017) with no differences between girls and boys. No significant improvements have been seen between 2002 and 2017. Eurobarometer should increase the adolescents’ sample to make possible benchmarking comparisons among the EU countries and extend the survey to the younger children population.

Children ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 2 ◽  
Ana Contardo Ayala ◽  
Jo Salmon ◽  
David Dunstan ◽  
Lauren Arundell ◽  
Kate Parker ◽  

This study examined two-year changes in patterns of activity and associations with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among adolescents. Inclinometers (activPAL) assessed sitting, sitting bouts, standing, stepping, and breaks from sitting. ActiGraph-accelerometers assessed sedentary time (SED), light-intensity physical activity (LIPA, stratified as low- and high-LIPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Anthropometric measures were objectively assessed at baseline and self-reported at follow-up. Data from 324 and 67 participants were obtained at baseline and follow-up, respectively. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models examined changes over time, and associations between baseline values and BMI and WC at follow-up. There were significant increases in BMI (0.6 kg/m2) and durations of prolonged sitting (26.4 min/day) and SED (52 min/day), and significant decreases in stepping (−19 min/day), LIPA (−33 min/day), low-LIPA (−26 min/day), high-LIPA (−6.3 min/day), MVPA (−19 min/day), and the number of breaks/day (−8). High baseline sitting time was associated (p = 0.086) with higher BMI at follow-up. There were no significant associations between baseline sitting, prolonged sitting, LIPA, or MVPA with WC. Although changes in daily activity patterns were not in a favourable direction, there were no clear associations with BMI or WC. Research with larger sample sizes and more time points is needed.

2001 ◽  
Vol 4 (2a) ◽  
pp. 325-336 ◽  
Jo Hautvast ◽  
Ibrahim Elmadfa ◽  
Mike Rayner

Summary of recommendations1.A new Nutrition Committee for the European Union1.1 A new Nutrition Committee for the European Union, should be created to give independent scientific and policy advice on nutrition, diets and physical activity to the Commission. This should be supported by a strengthened Nutritional Unit within the Commission.2.Policy development2.1 There needs to be a comprehensive and coherent nutritional policy for the EU2.2 The development of European dietary goals should continue after the completion of the Eurodiet Project.2.3 The European Commission should revise its Recommended Daily Allowances for vitamins and minerals using a systematic, evidence-based approach. Recommended Daily Allowances should be set at a level which would prevent deficiencies and lower the risk of disease.2.4 The European Commission should produce, preferably every four years, a report on the state of nutrition, diet and physical activity in the EU. This report should contain proposals for action3.Components of a nutrition policyEducation3.1 The European Commission should not be involved in the direct delivery of lifestyle advice to the public.3.2 The European Commission should continue to support networks whose members are involved in educating the public and in training professionals about nutrition, diets and physical activity.Research3.3 European Community funding of health-related research should better reflect the Community's public health priorities.3.4 The European Community should ear-mark funds for large, multi-centre studies into nutrition, diet and physical activity with a duration of up to 10 years.Consumer protectionFood labelling3.5 The European Commission should draw up proposals for the regulation of health claims.3.6 The European Community should agree rules for the use of nutrition claims along the lines agreed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.3.7 The European Commission should review the 1990 Nutrition Labelling Directive particularly with a view to making nutrition labelling more comprehensible and it should encourage the development of other ways of providing consumers with information about the nutrient content of foods though, for example, the Internet.Food composition3.8 The European Commission should review the Novel Food Regulations, particularly with a view to ensuring that the nutritional consequences of consuming novel foods are better assessed and to making approval procedures more efficient.3.9 European Community rules on food fortification and on food supplements should be harmonised but in such a way that the interests of consumers are paramount.Agriculture policy3.10 The Common Agriculture Policy should be subject to a regular and systematic health impact assessment.3.11 Given that there are subsidies under the Common Agricultural Policy designed to increase consumption of surplus food, these should be directed towards promoting the consumption of foods for which there is strong evidence of a need for increased consumption in the EU for health reasons.Special issuesFruit and vegetable consumption3.12 The promotion of increased fruit and vegetable consumption across the EU should be a key aspect of the European Union's proposed nutrition policy.Breast feeding3.13 The European Union should review its policy on breast feeding including assessing and, if necessary, improving its legislation on breast milk substitutes and maternity leave.Physical Activity3.14 The European Union should have a policy for promoting physical activity in Europe. This should be part of, or at least closely integrated with, the European Union's proposed nutritional policy.

2020 ◽  
Andrew Webster ◽  
G David Batty ◽  
Natalie Pearson ◽  
Emmanuel Stamatakis ◽  
Mark Hamer

AbstractAimsWhile physical activity appears to confer protection against depression, the relationship between sedentary behaviour and mental health is uncertain. Self-reported methods provide information about context although there may be error in the quantification of sedentary behaviour. Accordingly, we examined associations of both device-measured and self-reported sedentary behaviour with depression.MethodParticipants (n=4,704; 52.4% Female; aged 46-48) were drawn from the 1970 British Cohort Study. Sitting time and moderate-vigorous physical activity was measured using a thigh-worn accelerometer device (ActivPAL) over a seven day period. A range of self-reported sedentary behaviours was measured to provide context. Depression diagnosis was captured using a combination of self-reported consultation with a physician and use of anti-depressant medication. Malaise inventory was used to assess depressive symptoms.ResultsRelative to those who spent <8 hr/d sitting, those in the highest tertile of device measured sitting (>10 hr/d) had increased odds of depression diagnosis (odds ratio= 1.48 [95% confidence interval 1.05-2.08]). There was no association between self-reported TV viewing and depression diagnosis (1.07; 0.71-1.63). We observed protective associations between moderate-vigorous physical activity and depression diagnosis (highest tertile vs. the lowest tertile; 0.70;0.49-1.00). Associations of sitting time and physical activity with depression were mutually independent. Relative to <1 hours of internet usage, 2-3 and >3 hours of internet weekday usage were associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms (1.60;1.30-1.97 and 1.63;1.32-2.03, respectively).ConclusionDevice-measured sitting is associated depression diagnosis, although less consistent associations are observed with self-reported sedentary behaviours. Regular physical activity and reducing sedentary time may be beneficial for prevention of depression.

2020 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. e000661 ◽  
Edvard H Sagelv ◽  
Laila A Hopstock ◽  
Jonas Johansson ◽  
Bjørge H Hansen ◽  
Soren Brage ◽  

ObjectivesWe compared the ability of physical activity and sitting time questionnaires (PAQ) for ranking individuals versus continuous volume calculations (physical activity level (PAL), metabolic equivalents of task (MET), sitting hours) against accelerometry measured physical activity as our criterion.MethodsParticipants in a cohort from the Tromsø Study completed three questionnaires; (1) The Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS) (n=4040); (2) The Physical Activity Frequency, Intensity and Duration (PAFID) questionnaire (n=5902)) calculated as MET-hours·week-1 and (3) The International Physical Activity questionnaire (IPAQ) short-form sitting question (n=4896). We validated the questionnaires against the following accelerometry (Actigraph wGT3X-BT) estimates: vector magnitude counts per minute, steps∙day-1, time (minutes·day-1) in sedentary behaviour, light physical activity, moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) non-bouted and ≥10 min bouted MVPA.ResultsRanking of physical activity according to the SGPALS and quartiles (Q) of MET-hours∙week-1 from the PAFID were both positively associated with accelerometry estimates of physical activity (p<0.001) but correlations with accelerometry estimates were weak (SGPALS (PAL): r=0.11 to 0.26, p<0.001) and weak-to-moderate (PAFID: r=0.39 to 0.44, p<0.01). There was 1 hour of accelerometry measured sedentary time from Q1 to Q4 in the IPAQ sitting question (p<0.001) and also weak correlations (r=0.22, p<0.01).ConclusionRanking of physical activity levels measured with PAQs appears to have higher validity than energy expenditure calculations. Self-reported sedentary time poorly reflects accelerometry measured sedentary time. These two PAQs can be used for ranking individuals into different physical activity categories supporting previous studies using these instruments when assessing associations with health outcomes.

2004 ◽  
Vol 49 (4) ◽  
Karim Abu-Omar ◽  
Alfred R�tten ◽  
Jean-Marie Robine

2018 ◽  
Keng Yew Soh ◽  
Marina B Pinheiro ◽  
Martin Mackey ◽  
Katrina Scurrah ◽  
Adrian Bauman ◽  

Aim: To investigate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on physical activity levels. Methods: Data from 134 twins from Twins Research Australia, self-report and objective measures of physical activity were obtained by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) (n = 110) and Actigraph (n = 120), respectively. Correlations were calculated for twin pairs stratified by zygosity (Monozygotic, MZ; Dizygotic, DZ) and using Spearman's correlation (rs) Results: Within-pair correlations were usually higher in MZ for the Actigraph (rs ranging from 0.34 [0.0 to 0.57] to 0.48 [0.22 to 0.68]) compared to IPAQ (rs ranging from -0.15 [-0.44 to 0.17] to 0.52 [0.25 to 0.72]. Correlations in DZ were lower for the Actigraph (rs ranging from -0.03 [-0.55 to 0.51] to 0.16 [-0.41 to 0.64]) compared to IPAQ (rs ranging from -0.11 [-0.59 to 0.43] to 0.50 [-0.01 to 0.81]). Correlations between Actigraph and IPAQ for all individuals were small for sedentary vs sitting time (rs = 0.28) and vigorous physical activity (rs = 0.27), but moderate for total physical activity (rs = 0.35). Conclusion: Within-family correlation of physical activity levels depends on the assessment, with less consistent results when its assessed by self-reported methods.

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