ADAMTS18 deficiency leads to preputial gland hypoplasia and fibrosis in male mice

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (3) ◽  
pp. 100542
Xiaotian Lin ◽  
Taojing Wu ◽  
Liya Wang ◽  
Suying Dang ◽  
Wei Zhang
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Amanda J. Barabas ◽  
Jeffrey R. Lucas ◽  
Marisa A. Erasmus ◽  
Heng-Wei Cheng ◽  
Brianna N. Gaskill

Aggression among group housed male mice continues to challenge laboratory animal researchers because mitigation strategies are generally applied at the cage level without a good understanding of how it affects the dominance hierarchy. Aggression within a group is typically displayed by the dominant mouse targeting lower ranking subordinates; thus, the strategies for preventing aggression may be more successful if applied specifically to the dominant mouse. Unfortunately, dominance rank is often not assessed because of time intensive observations or tests. Several correlates of dominance status have been identified, but none have been directly compared to home cage behavior in standard housing. This study assessed the convergent validity of three dominance correlates (urinary darcin, tube test score, preputial gland to body length ratio) with wound severity and rankings based on home cage behavior, using factor analysis. Discriminant validity with open field measures was assessed to determine if tube test scores are independent of anxiety. Cages were equally split between SJL and albino C57BL/6 strains and group sizes of 3 or 5 (N = 24). Home cage behavior was observed during the first week, and dominance measures were recorded over the second. After controlling for strain and group size, darcin and preputial ratio had strong loadings on the same factor, which was a significant predictor of home cage ranking showing strong convergent validity. Tube test scores were not significantly impacted by open field data, showing discriminant validity. Social network analysis revealed that despotic power structures were prevalent, aggressors were typically more active and rested away from cage mates, and the amount of social investigation and aggression performed by an individual were highly correlated. Data from this study show that darcin and preputial ratio are representative of home cage aggression and provide further insight into individual behavior patterns in group housed male mice.

2009 ◽  
Vol 21 (7) ◽  
pp. 860 ◽  
Ayesha Khan ◽  
Robert G. Berger ◽  
Denys deCatanzaro

Exposure to novel adult males and their urine can hasten the onset of sexual maturity in female mice. Some evidence implicates chemosignals from males’ preputial glands, while other evidence suggests that male urinary steroids, especially 17β-oestradiol, contribute to this effect. The present experiment was designed to determine whether preputial gland removal would influence the capacity of males to accelerate female sexual development, and to measure male urinary oestradiol and testosterone in the presence or absence of these glands. Juvenile females aged 28 days were housed for two weeks in isolation or underneath two outbred males that had undergone preputialectomy or sham surgery. Urine samples were collected non-invasively from males that were isolated or exposed to females, then assayed for oestradiol, testosterone and creatinine. Combined uterine and ovarian mass from females sacrificed at 43 days of age was increased by exposure to males, regardless of whether or not these males had been preputialectomised. Male urinary creatinine was reduced by exposure to developing females. Creatinine-adjusted oestradiol and testosterone were significantly greater in female-exposed than in isolated males, in both preputialectomised and intact males. These data suggest that the preputials are not necessary for the capacity of males to hasten female uterine and ovarian growth. As exogenous oestrogens can promote uterine growth and other parameters of female reproductive maturation, oestradiol in males’ urine may contribute to earlier sexual maturity in male-exposed females.

Behaviour ◽  
1997 ◽  
Vol 134 (13-14) ◽  
pp. 989-1002 ◽  
D. Cowan ◽  
L.M. Gosling ◽  
J. Hudson ◽  
S.A. Collins

AbstractTo investigate whether behaviour in the litter predicted later dominance status, male mice were observed whilst within their litters from three weeks old, and when paired with an unrelated male as an adult. We found that males that were dominant in their litter were not more likely to become dominant as an adult. The best predictor of adult dominance status was the relative scent marking rate when with littermates, males that marked more than their adult partner were more likely to become dominant. The high scent mark rate of dominant males may be the cause not the consequence of dominance, they scent mark at a higher rate before becoming dominant. It was also shown that there are strong family resemblances for scent mark rate, body weight and most urogenital gland weights. This indicates that scent mark rate and urogenital gland weights may be determined genetically, or partly determined by parental effects. As found in previous work the preputial gland was heavier in dominant males than subordinates. Furthermore, dominant males were lighter than subordinates at the end of the experiment indicating that there may be a cost to maintaining dominance.

1987 ◽  
Vol 7 (10) ◽  
pp. 3749-3758
V da C Soares ◽  
R M Gubits ◽  
P Feigelson ◽  
F Costantini

To investigate the tissue-specific and hormonal regulation of the rat alpha 2u globulin gene family, we introduced one cloned member of the gene family into the mouse germ line and studied its expression in the resulting transgenic mice. Alpha 2u globulingene 207 was microinjected on a 7-kilobase DNA fragment, and four transgenic lines were analyzed. The transgene was expressed at very high levels, specifically in the liver and the preputial gland of adult male mice. The expression in male liver was first detected at puberty, and no expression was detected in female transgenic mice. This pattern of expression is similar to the expression of endogenous alpha 2u globulin genes in the rat but differs from the expression of the homologous mouse major urinary protein (MUP) gene family in that MUPs are synthesized in female liver and not in the male preputial gland. We conclude that these differences between rat alpha 2u globulin and mouse MUP gene expression are due to evolutionary differences in cis-acting regulatory elements. The expression of the alpha 2u globulin transgene in the liver was abolished by castration and fully restored after testosterone replacement. The expression could also be induced in the livers of female mice by treatment with either testosterone or dexamethasone, following ovariectomy and adrenalectomy. Therefore, the cis-acting elements responsible for regulation by these two hormones, as well as those responsible for tissue-specific expression, are closely linked to the alpha 2u globulin gene.

1995 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 63-68 ◽  
Mao Tanabe ◽  
Takeji Kimura

1973 ◽  
Vol 9 (5) ◽  
pp. 625-628 ◽  
F.H. Bronson ◽  
H.M. Marsden

1985 ◽  
Vol 104 (1) ◽  
pp. 113-120 ◽  
Ch. Jean-Faucher ◽  
M. Berger ◽  
M. De Turckheim ◽  
G. Veyssiere ◽  
Cl. Jean

ABSTRACT Male mice were injected daily with cyproterone acetate for 10 consecutive days during one of the four following periods: 1–10 days, 11–20 days, 21–30 days or 31–40 days. At all stages studied cyproterone acetate caused a significant reduction in the relative weights of epididymis, vas deferens, preputial gland and seminal vesicle in males killed 24 h after the last injection; the androgen content (testosterone + dihydrotestosterone) of the accessory sex organs was also reduced but the differences were not always significant. Cyproterone acetate treatment from 1 to 10 days resulted in a definitive reduction in the relative weights of all accessory sex organs studied and when injected from 11 to 20 days in epididymis and vas deferens. When cyproterone acetate was injected after 20 days of age, the inhibition of sexual organ weights was reversible and at adulthood organs were normally developed. Cyproterone acetate treatment induced a high percentage of infertile males only when injected from 1 to 10 days. Spermatogenesis, androgen levels in plasma and accessory sex organs, and sexual behaviour were not affected in sterile males. These results suggest that the functional development of accessory sex organs can be permanently affected by short-term neonatal exposure to endogenous androgens. J. Endocr. (1985) 104, 113–120

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