Municipal waste combustion typically involves both energy recovery as well as volume reduction of municipal solid waste prior to landfilling. However, due to environmental concerns, municipal waste combustion (MWC) has not been a widely accepted practice. A primary concern is the leaching behavior of MWC ash when it is stored in a landfill. The ash consists of a finely divided fly ash fraction (10% by volume) and a coarser bottom ash (90% by volume). Typically, MWC fly ash fails tests used to evaluate leaching behavior due to high amounts of soluble lead and cadmium species. The focus of this study was to identify specific lead bearing phases in MWC fly ash. Detailed information regarding lead speciation is necessary to completely understand the leaching behavior of MWC ash.
Various factors, including the insect host, diet, and surrounding ecosystem can shape the structure of the bacterial communities of insects. We have employed next generation, high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA to characterize the bacteriome of wild Zeugodacus (Bactrocera) cucurbitae (Coquillett) flies from three regions of Bangladesh. The tested populations developed distinct bacterial communities with differences in bacterial composition, suggesting that geography has an impact on the fly bacteriome. The dominant bacteria belonged to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Dysgomonadaceae and Orbaceae, with the genera Dysgonomonas, Orbus and Citrobacter showing the highest relative abundance across populations. Network analysis indicated variable interactions between operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with cases of mutual exclusion and copresence. Certain bacterial genera with high relative abundance were also characterized by a high degree of interactions. Interestingly, genera with a low relative abundance like Shimwellia, Gilliamella, and Chishuiella were among those that showed abundant interactions, suggesting that they are also important components of the bacterial community. Such knowledge could help us identify ideal wild populations for domestication in the context of the sterile insect technique or similar biotechnological methods. Further characterization of this bacterial diversity with transcriptomic and metabolic approaches, could also reveal their specific role in Z. cucurbitae physiology.
Bacteriophages (phages) are ubiquitous entities present in every conceivable habitat as a result of their bacterial parasitism. Their prevalence and impact in the ecology of bacterial communities and their ability to control pathogens make their characterization essential, particularly of new phages, improving knowledge and potential application. The isolation and characterization of a new lytic phage against Sphaerotilus natans strain DSM 6575, named vB_SnaP-R1 (SnaR1), is here described. Besides being the first sequenced genome of a Sphaerotilus natans infecting phage, 99% of its 41507 bp genome lacks homology with any other sequenced phage, revealing its uniqueness and previous lack of knowledge. Moreover, SnaR1 is the first Podoviridae phage described infecting this bacterium. Sphaerotilus natans is an important filamentous bacterium due to its deleterious effect on wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and thus, phages may play a role as novel biotechnological tools against filamentous overgrowth in WWTP. The lytic spectrum of SnaR1 was restricted to its host strain, infecting only one out of three S. natans strains and infection assays revealed its ability to reduce bacterial loads. Results suggest SnaR1 as the prototype of a new phage genus and demonstrates its potential as a non-chemical alternative to reduce S. natans DSM 6575 cells.
Bacteria play a crucial role in the marine carbon cycle, contributing to the production and degradation of organic carbon. Here, we investigated organic carbon pools, aggregate formation, and bacterioplankton communities in three contrasting oceanographic settings in the Galapagos Archipelago. We studied a submarine CO2 vent at Roca Redonda (RoR), an upwelling site at Bolivar Channel (BoC) subjected to a weak El Niño event at the time of sampling in October 2014, as well as a site without volcanic or upwelling influence at Cowley Islet (CoI). We recorded physico-chemical parameters, and quantified particulate and dissolved organic carbon, transparent exopolymeric particles, and the potential of the water to form larger marine aggregates. Free-living and particle-attached bacterial communities were assessed via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both RoR and BoC exhibited temperatures elevated by 1–1.5 °C compared to CoI. RoR further experienced reduced pH between 6.8 and 7.4. We observed pronounced differences in organic carbon pools at each of the three sites, with highest dissolved organic carbon concentrations at BoC and RoR, and highest particulate organic carbon concentrations and aggregate formation at BoC. Bacterioplankton communities at BoC were dominated by opportunistic copiotrophic taxa, such as Alteromonas and Roseobacter, known to thrive in phytoplankton blooms, as opposed to oligotrophic taxa dominating at CoI, such as members of the SAR11 clade. Therefore, we propose that bacterial communities were mainly influenced by the availability of organic carbon at the investigated sites. Our study provides a comprehensive characterization of organic carbon pools and bacterioplankton communities, highlighting the high heterogeneity of various components of the marine carbon cycle around the Galapagos Archipelago.
Planctomycetes are bacteria that were long thought to be unculturable, of low abundance, and therefore neglectable in the environment. This view changed in recent years, after it was shown that members of the phylum Planctomycetes can be abundant in many aquatic environments, e.g., in the epiphytic communities on macroalgae surfaces. Here, we analyzed three different macroalgae from the North Sea and show that Planctomycetes is the most abundant bacterial phylum on the alga Fucus sp., while it represents a minor fraction of the surface-associated bacterial community of Ulva sp. and Laminaria sp. Especially dominant within the phylum Planctomycetes were Blastopirellula sp., followed by Rhodopirellula sp., Rubripirellula sp., as well as other Pirellulaceae and Lacipirellulaceae, but also members of the OM190 lineage. Motivated by the observed abundance, we isolated four novel planctomycetal strains to expand the collection of species available as axenic cultures since access to different strains is a prerequisite to investigate the success of planctomycetes in marine environments. The isolated strains constitute four novel species belonging to one novel and three previously described genera in the order Pirellulales, class Planctomycetia, phylum Planctomycetes.