Neuropsychological effects in children exposed to anticonvulsant monotherapy during gestation: Phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and phenytoin

2022 ◽  
Vol 127 ◽  
pp. 108533
Jane Adams ◽  
Patricia Ann Janulewicz ◽  
Eric A. Macklin ◽  
Ruby Dhillon ◽  
Catherine Phillips ◽  
2010 ◽  
Cay Anderson-Hanley ◽  
Paul Arciero ◽  
Joseph Nimon ◽  
Vadim Yerkohin ◽  
Veronica Hopkins ◽  

2007 ◽  
Vol 44 (7) ◽  
pp. 436-446 ◽  
Paule Hardy ◽  
Jean-Paul Collet ◽  
Joanne Goldberg ◽  
Michel Vanasse ◽  
Jean Lambert ◽  

1998 ◽  
Vol 26 (03n04) ◽  
pp. 265-274 ◽  
Ching-Liang Hsieh ◽  
Tsai-Chung Li ◽  
Chien-Yu Lin ◽  
Nou-Ying Tang ◽  
Qwang-Yuen Chang ◽  

Although acupuncture has traditionally used the acupoints formula to treat diseases, the physiological mechanisms involved and the effectiveness of therapy remain unclear. This study investigated the physiological mechanism(s) and response to acupuncture stimulation using the acupoints formula. Scalp-recorded potentials P300 were evoked by auditory stimulation of non-target and target in 13 normal adult volunteers. Latencies and amplitudes were measured. Three assessments were performed in each subject over a period of at least one week. Each assessment was divided into a control period with no acupuncture stimulation, followed by an acupuncture period and then a post-acupuncture period. Acupuncture needles were inserted into the body as follows: 1) non-acupoint: acupuncture needles were inserted 2 cm lateral to both Zusanli acupoints; 2) acupoint: acupuncture needles were inserted into both Zusanli acupoints; 3) acupoints formula: acupuncture needles were inserted into both Zusanli and Shousanli acupoints. Our results showed that both acupoint and acupoints formula assessments resulted in a significant decrease of P300 amplitudes during the acupuncture and post-acupuncture periods. However, there was significant difference in P300 amplitudes in the non-acupoint assessment during these periods. P300 changes in latencies and amplitudes were not significantly different between the acupoint assessment and the acupoints formula assessment. We concluded that acupuncture stimulation of both Zusanli acupoints resulted in a decrease of P300 amplitudes, suggesting the involvement of the cerebral cortex in sensory interaction when simultaneous sensations of the two types are received. No similar changes were observed in the non-acupoint assessment, which have been suggested to be related to so-called acupoint specificity. Results obtained using the acupoints formula were not significantly different from those using acupoints alone. These findings suggested that neuropsychological effects from stimulation of Zusanli acupoints and Shousanli acupoints are different.

2011 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 571-586 ◽  
Flavie Waters ◽  
Romola S. Bucks

AbstractThere is rapidly accumulating evidence of a close relationship between sleep loss and cognition. Neuropsychologists need to become aware of this body of knowledge as the effects of sleep loss on brain functions are significant. The current study (a) outlines the extent to which insufficient sleep affects performance on cognitive tasks in otherwise healthy people, (b) discusses the relationship between sleep and neurocognitive disorders, and (c) highlights key issues that merit consideration for neuropsychologists. This review shows that sleep loss has a measurable impact on performance through decreases in cognitive functions and effects on biological pathways that support cognitive performance. Sleep loss reliably produces reductions in speed of processing and attention. Higher order cognitive functions are affected to a lesser extent, and there is sparing on tasks of crystallized abilities. Deficits worsen with increasing time awake, but may be overturned after normal sleep is resumed. The review also shows that sleep disorders are a major feature of neuropsychological conditions contributing to the pattern of cognitive impairment. Overall, neuropsychologists must be alert to sleep problems in their clients, so that sleep interventions, or referrals, are put in place in the rehabilitation plan of individuals with cognitive dysfunctions. Recommendations also include routine screening of sleep as part of cognitive assessment. (JINS, 2011,17, 571–586)

2007 ◽  
Vol 34 (3) ◽  
pp. 494-506 ◽  
S. K. Hill ◽  
J. L. Reilly ◽  
M. S. H. Harris ◽  
T. Khine ◽  
J. A. Sweeney

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