Propensity score analysis of the association between maternal exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and birth defects in Northwestern China

Jing Li ◽  
Yujiao Du ◽  
Fengyi Qu ◽  
Hui Jing ◽  
Hong Yan ◽  

Abstract Previous studies have suggested that maternal active smoking can increase the risk of birth defects, but evidence on second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) is limited. We aimed to assess the association between maternal exposure to SHS and birth defects in a Chinese population. The data were based on a large-scale cross-sectional survey conducted in Shaanxi Province, China. Considering the characteristics of survey design and the potential impact of confounding factors, we adopted propensity score matching (PSM) to match the SHS exposure group and the non-exposure group to attain a balance of the confounders between the two groups. Subsequently, conditional logistic regression was employed to estimate the effect of SHS exposure on birth defects. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses were conducted to verify the key findings. After nearest neighbor matching of PSM with a ratio of 2 and a caliper width of 0.03, there were 6,205 and 12,410 participants in the exposure and control group, respectively. Pregnant women exposed to SHS were estimated to be 58% more likely to have infants with overall birth defects (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.30–1.91) and 75% more likely to have infants with circulatory system defects (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.26–2.44). We also observed that the risk effect of overall birth defects had an increasing trend as the frequency of exposure increased. Additionally, sensitivity analyses suggested that our results had good robustness. These results indicate that maternal exposure to SHS likely increases the risk of overall birth defects, especially circulatory system defects, in Chinese offspring.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Oktay Aslaner

<b><i>Objective:</i></b> Cigarette smoking is a life-threatening habit that has rapidly spread in every socioeconomic part of the public worldwide. There exist mechanisms of nicotine delivery available to use in the hope of halting cigarette smoking, and the electronic cigarette (EC) is one of the common methods used for tobacco smoking replacement. This study aimed to investigate experimentally the oxidative effects of tobacco smoke and EC smoke which contain nicotine. <b><i>Method:</i></b> We constructed smoke circuit rooms for exposing the rats to EC or tobacco smoke. Three groups were created, the control group (<i>N</i> = 8); the electronic cigarette group (<i>N</i> = 8), exposure to electronic cigarette smoke for 2 h per day; and the tobacco group (<i>N</i> = 8), exposure to traditional cigarette smoke for 2 h per day. After the first and second week of exposure, blood samples were obtained, and serum oxidative stress index (OSI), paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, and prolidase levels were evaluated. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Higher values of OSI and prolidase levels were detected in the first week of EC or tobacco smoke exposure in both study groups (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001) when compared with the control group, and partial decrements were observed in the second week. By contrast, elevated PON1 levels were observed in the second week after EC or tobacco smoke exposure. The highest OSI levels were observed in the tobacco smoke group (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001). The lowest values of PON1 levels were detected in the first week of the electronic cigarette smoke group, and this decremental value was statistically different than normal, the second week of the electronic cigarette smoke group, the first week of the traditional cigarette smoke exposure group, and the second week of the traditional cigarette smoke exposure group values (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.000). <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Our results indicate that EC smoke induced oxidative stress. Therefore, ECs are potentially risky for human health and can lead to important health problems.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (Supplement_1) ◽  
G Kleinnibbelink ◽  
BJR Buckley ◽  
SL Harrison ◽  
N Williams ◽  
E Fazio-Eynullayeya ◽  

Abstract Funding Acknowledgements Type of funding sources: None. Background. Despite introduction of pharmacological therapies to improve outcomes of pulmonary hypertension (PH), poor long-term survival remains present. Cardiac rehabilitation may be an alternative strategy to improve survival. However, no study directly linked CR to mortality in PH patients. Therefore, adopting a retrospective observational study using a large electronic medical record (EMR) database, the objective of this study was to compare mortality between patients with primary PH with CR versus a propensity-matched control group of PH without CR. Methods. The retrospective analysis was conducted on December 14, 2020 using anonymized data within TriNetX, a global federated health research network with access to EMRs from participating academic medical centres, specialty physician practices, and community hospitals, predominantly in the United States. All patients were aged ≥18 years with primary PH recorded in EMRs at least 18-months before the search date to allow for 1-year follow-up from CR. Using logistic regression, patients with PH with an EMR of CR were 1:1 propensity score-matched with PH patients without CR for age, sex, race, diseases of the respiratory system, disease of the circulatory system, hypertensive disease, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular procedures and cardiovascular medications. Results. In total, 70,875 patients with primary PH met the inclusion criteria for the control group and 637 patients with primary PH met the inclusion criteria for the CR and exercise cohort (Table 1). Using the propensity score-matched cohort, and excluding patients with outcomes outside the measurement window, mortality at 1-year from CR was proportionally lower with mortality of 13.9% (n = 87 of 628 patients) in the CR and exercise cohort compared to 21.0% (n = 133 of 632 patients) in the controls (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.81). Conclusion. In conclusion, the present study of 1,264 patients with primary PH suggests that CR is associated with 40% lower odds of 1-year mortality, when compared to propensity score-matched patients without CR or exercise programmes. Abstract Figure.

2011 ◽  
Vol 35 (6) ◽  
pp. 673-722 ◽  
Hansjoerg Gaus ◽  
Christoph Emanuel Mueller

Background and objectives. The majority of environmental education takes place in informal settings, of which so-called free-choice learning is typical. What is understood by this is a kind of learning which is self-determined and driven by the needs and interests of the learner. The voluntariness of participation in interventions and the fact that they take place in turbulent action settings lead to formidable challenges for impact evaluation, particularly because often no randomized control trials (RCTs) or before-and-after measurements can be carried out. In this article, the evaluation of five different interventions from a large-scale program on consumer climate education provides the empirical background for illustrating the problems confronting quasi-experimental impact analyses in a free-choice context and presenting a possible solution based on propensity score matching (PSM). Method. In a quasi-experimental control-group design, intervention participants and nonparticipants filled out questionnaires featuring the same behavioral intentions. The challenges due to selection processes were met with radius matching on the basis of sociodemographic characteristics as covariates. Sensitivity analyses on the basis of Rosenbaum Bounds and the Hodges-Lehmann point estimator were used for assessing the robustness of treatment effects against unobserved confounding variables. Results. The analyses show that all the interventions under study positively influenced intentions to seek further advice or information on the topics covered. Furthermore, for all the interventions, significant positive effects on the intentions relating directly to climate-friendly behavior could be identified. In this context, PSM and sensitivity analyses proved to be effective methods. However, there were several limitations due to conceptual and methodological issues, and these are discussed below.

2009 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 9-17 ◽  
Eric A. Miller ◽  
Susan E. Manning ◽  
Sonja A. Rasmussen ◽  
Jennita Reefhuis ◽  
Margaret A. Honein ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Hiroki Ushirozako ◽  
Tomohiko Hasegawa ◽  
Yu Yamato ◽  
Go Yoshida ◽  
Tatsuya Yasuda ◽  

OBJECTIVESurgical site infection (SSI) after posterior spinal surgery is one of the severe complications that may occur despite administration of prophylactic antibiotics and the use of intraoperative aseptic precautions. The use of intrawound vancomycin powder for SSI prevention is still controversial, with a lack of high-quality and large-scale studies. The purpose of this retrospective study using a propensity score–matched analysis was to clarify whether intrawound vancomycin powder prevents SSI occurrence after spinal surgery.METHODSThe authors analyzed 1261 adult patients who underwent posterior spinal surgery between 2010 and 2018 (mean age 62.3 years; 506 men, 755 women; follow-up period at least 1 year). Baseline and surgical data were assessed. After a preliminary analysis, a propensity score model was established with adjustments for age, sex, type of disease, and previously reported risk factors for SSI. The SSI rates were compared between patients with intrawound vancomycin powder treatment (vancomycin group) and those without (control group).RESULTSIn a preliminary analysis of 1261 unmatched patients (623 patients in the vancomycin group and 638 patients in the control group), there were significant differences between the groups in age (p = 0.041), body mass index (p = 0.013), American Society of Anesthesiologists classification (p < 0.001), malnutrition (p = 0.001), revision status (p < 0.001), use of steroids (p = 0.019), use of anticoagulation (p = 0.033), length of surgery (p = 0.003), estimated blood loss (p < 0.001), and use of instrumentation (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in SSI rates between the vancomycin and control groups (21 SSIs [3.4%] vs 33 SSIs [5.2%]; OR 0.640, 95% CI 0.368–1.111; p = 0.114). Using a one-to-one propensity score–matched analysis, 444 pairs of patients from the vancomycin and control groups were selected. There was no significant difference in the baseline and surgical data, except for height (p = 0.046), between both groups. The C-statistic for the propensity score model was 0.702. In the score-matched analysis, 12 (2.7%) and 24 (5.4%) patients in the vancomycin and control groups, respectively, developed SSIs (OR 0.486, 95% CI 0.243–0.972; p = 0.041). There were no systemic complications related to the use of vancomycin.CONCLUSIONSThe current study showed that intrawound vancomycin powder was useful in reducing the risk of SSI after posterior spinal surgery by half, without adverse events. Intrawound vancomycin powder use is a safe and effective procedure for SSI prevention.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Kenji Fujimori ◽  
Kunio Tarasawa ◽  
Kiyohide Fushimi

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Polymyxin B hemoperfusion (PMX) reduces endotoxin in septic shock patients’ blood and can improve hemodynamics and organ functions. However, its effects on the reduction of septic shock mortality are controversial. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Using the Japanese diagnosis procedure combination database from April 2016 to March 2019, we identified adult septic shock patients treated with noradrenaline. This study used propensity score matching to compare the outcome between PMX-treated and non-treated patients. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality, counting from the day of noradrenaline initiation. The secondary endpoints were noradrenaline-, ventilator-, and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF)-free days at day 28. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Of 30,731 eligible patients, 4,766 received PMX. Propensity score matching produced a matched cohort of 4,141 pairs with well-balanced patient backgrounds. The 28-day survival rate was 77.9% in the PMX group and 71.1% in the control group (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.0001). Median days of noradrenalin-, CHDF-, and ventilator-free days were 2 days (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.0001), 2 days (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.0001), and 6 days (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.0001) longer in the PMX group than in the control group, respectively. When stratified with the maximum daily dose of noradrenaline, the PMX group showed a statistically significant survival benefit in the groups with noradrenaline dose &#x3c;20 mg/day but not in the noradrenaline group dose ≥20 mg/day. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Analysis of large Japanese databases showed that septic shock patients who received noradrenaline might benefit from PMX treatment.

BMC Surgery ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Yoshikazu Nagase ◽  
Shinya Matsuzaki ◽  
Masayuki Endo ◽  
Takeya Hara ◽  
Aiko Okada ◽  

Abstract Background A diagnostic sign on magnetic resonance imaging, suggestive of posterior extrauterine adhesion (PEUA), was identified in patients with placenta previa. However, the clinical features or surgical outcomes of patients with placenta previa and PEUA are unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of placenta previa with PEUA and determine whether an altered management strategy improved surgical outcomes. Methods This single institution retrospective study examined patients with placenta previa who underwent cesarean delivery between 2014 and 2019. In June 2017, we recognized that PEUA was associated with increased intraoperative bleeding; thus, we altered the management of patients with placenta previa and PEUA. To assess the relationship between changes in practice and surgical outcomes, a quasi-experimental method was used to examine the difference-in-difference before (pre group) and after (post group) the changes. Surgical management was modified as follows: (i) minimization of uterine exteriorization and adhesion detachment during cesarean delivery and (ii) use of Nelaton catheters for guiding cervical passage during Bakri balloon insertion. To account for patient characteristics, propensity score matching and multivariate regression analyses were performed. Results The study cohort (n = 141) comprised of 24 patients with placenta previa and PEUA (PEUA group) and 117 non-PEUA patients (control group). The PEUA patients were further categorized into the pre (n = 12) and post groups (n = 12) based on the changes in surgical management. Total placenta previa and posterior placentas were more likely in the PEUA group than in the control group (66.7% versus 42.7% [P = 0.04] and 95.8% versus 63.2% [P < 0.01], respectively). After propensity score matching (n = 72), intraoperative blood loss was significantly higher in the PEUA group (n = 24) than in the control group (n = 48) (1515 mL versus 870 mL, P < 0.01). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that PEUA was a significant risk factor for intraoperative bleeding before changes were implemented in practice (t = 2.46, P = 0.02). Intraoperative blood loss in the post group was successfully reduced, as opposed to in the pre group (1180 mL versus 1827 mL, P = 0.04). Conclusions PEUA was associated with total placenta previa, posterior placenta, and increased intraoperative bleeding in patients with placenta previa. Our altered management could reduce the intraoperative blood loss.

2021 ◽  
pp. 036354652110186
Min Ji Lee ◽  
Kang Sup Yoon ◽  
Sohee Oh ◽  
Sue Shin ◽  
Chris Hyunchul Jo

Background: While platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been widely studied for musculoskeletal disorders, few studies to date have reported its use for adhesive capsulitis (AC). Fully characterized and standardized allogenic PRP may provide clues to solve the underlying mechanism of PRP with respect to synovial inflammation and thus may clarify its clinical indications. Purpose: To clinically evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fully characterized pure PRP injection in patients with AC and to assess the effects of pure PRP on synoviocytes with or without inflammation in vitro. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: For the clinical analysis, a total of 15 patients with AC received an ultrasonography-guided intra-articular PRP injection and were observed for 6 months. Pain, range of motion (ROM), muscle strength, shoulder function, and overall satisfaction in the patients were evaluated using questionnaires at 1 week as well as at 1, 3, and 6 months after the PRP injection and results were compared with the results of a propensity score−matched control group that received a corticosteroid injection (40 mg triamcinolone acetonide). For the in vitro analysis, synoviocytes were cultured with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and PRP. The gene expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as matrix enzymes and their inhibitors was evaluated. Results: At 6-month follow-up, pure PRP significantly decreased pain and improved ROM, muscle strength, and shoulder function to levels comparable with those after a corticosteroid injection. All pain values, strength measurements, and functional scores significantly improved up to 6 months in the PRP group, but these measures improved up to 3 months and then were decreased at 6 months in the corticosteroid group. ROM was significantly improved in the 2 groups at 6 months compared with baseline. Allogenic PRP did not cause adverse events. For the in vitro findings, PRP induced inflammation but significantly improved the IL 1β−induced synovial inflammatory condition by decreasing proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor−α, IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase−1 and decreased matrix enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase−1, −3, and −13 as well as a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs−4 and −5) and further increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines such as vasoactive intestinal peptide. Conclusion: This study showed that PRP decreased pain and improved shoulder ROM and function to an extent comparable with that of a corticosteroid in patients with AC. Allogenic pure PRP acted in a pleiotropic manner and decreased proinflammatory cytokines only in the inflammatory condition. Clinical Relevance: Allogenic PRP could be a treatment option for the inflammatory stage of AC.

Dimitri Sneiders ◽  
Gijs H. J. de Smet ◽  
Floris den Hartog ◽  
Yagmur Yurtkap ◽  
Anand G. Menon ◽  

Abstract Background Patients with a re-recurrent hernia may account for up to 20% of all incisional hernia (IH) patients. IH repair in this population may be complex due to an altered anatomical and biological situation as a result of previous procedures and outcomes of IH repair in this population have not been thoroughly assessed. This study aims to assess outcomes of IH repair by dedicated hernia surgeons in patients who have already had two or more re-recurrences. Methods A propensity score matched analysis was performed using a registry-based, prospective cohort. Patients who underwent IH repair after ≥ 2 re-recurrences operated between 2011 and 2018 and who fulfilled 1 year follow-up visit were included. Patients with similar follow-up who underwent primary IH repair were propensity score matched (1:3) and served as control group. Patient baseline characteristics, surgical and functional outcomes were analyzed and compared between both groups. Results Seventy-three patients operated on after ≥ 2 IH re-recurrences were matched to 219 patients undergoing primary IH repair. After propensity score matching, no significant differences in patient baseline characteristics were present between groups. The incidence of re-recurrence was similar between groups (≥ 2 re-recurrences: 25% versus control 24%, p = 0.811). The incidence of complications, as well as long-term pain, was similar between both groups. Conclusion IH repair in patients who have experienced multiple re-recurrences results in outcomes comparable to patients operated for a primary IH with a similar risk profile. Further surgery in patients who have already experienced multiple hernia re-recurrences is justifiable when performed by a dedicated hernia surgeon.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (7) ◽  
pp. 1426
Bok-Nam Seo ◽  
Ojin Kwon ◽  
Siwoo Lee ◽  
Ho-Seok Kim ◽  
Kyung-Won Kang ◽  

Postmenopausal women have a higher prevalence of hypertension compared to premenopausal women. Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence of which is ever increasing. This study investigated the effects of long-term acupuncture on lowering the blood pressure of postmenopausal women with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension. Participants were 122 postmenopausal women aged less than 65 years, diagnosed with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension (systolic blood pressure 120–159 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure 80–99 mmHg). We used a propensity score-matched design. The experimental group (n = 61) received acupuncture for four weeks every six months over a period of two years. The control group (n = 61) received no intervention. An Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed for the primary efficacy analysis. Relative risk ratios were used to compare group differences in treatment effects. Acupuncture significantly reduced the participants’ diastolic blood pressure (−9.92 mmHg; p < 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (−10.34 mmHg; p < 0.001) from baseline to follow-up. The results indicate that acupuncture alleviates hypertension in postmenopausal women, reducing their risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and improving their health and quality of life.

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