Supplemental Material for Species Differences in Executive Function Correlate With Hippocampus Volume and Neocortex Ratio Across Nonhuman Primates

2019 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 01-02
Thiago Bassi

Most neuro-pathophysiological research involving the hippocampus uses rodents as a nonhuman model, due to the extensive experimental descriptive literature and favorable cost. The findings from the rodent hippocampus may not be generalizable to humans, though, as ontogenetically they have different hippocampal components. While the rodent model has these limitations, the use of nonhuman primates is often not feasible due to economic and ethical considerations. Pigs are a translational alternative due to the anatomic similarity of the hippocampus in humans and pigs. Materials and Methods: Eight pigs’ brains were harvested and then analyzed according to our previously established technique. Five brains were frozen and three were stored in formalin. All eight brains were then sent to an independent histology service, where they were sectioned according to the methodology established by Holm 1994. The slabs were 10 µm with 2.5 cm2 of hippocampus cross-sectional area. Results: The mean total hippocampus volume was 892.84 mm3 ± 198.91 mm3 using Holm’s methodology. The mean number of cells per sample (20X magnification settings) was 9996.75, using automated ImageJ cell counting. Discussion: In this study, the counts of hippocampus cells were divided into two regions of interest: CA1 and CA3. Our results show that the mean number of hippocampus cells observed was 5.75 million and 2.25 million, in the CA1 and CA3 regions respectively. Holm reported 4.12 million cells in the CA1 region and 1.51 million cells in the CA3 region. The results presented here indicate the CA1 and CA3 cell percentages being 23% and 9% respectively, which are similar to the percentages reported by Holm (21% and 12%). Conclusion: These results corroborate previous findings and demonstrate a novel and cost-effective way to study the hippocampus of pigs in translational neurological research.

2005 ◽  
Vol 58 (3-4b) ◽  
pp. 378-396 ◽  
Elisabeth A. Murray ◽  
Kim S. Graham ◽  
David Gaffan

As promised in the Introduction, this Special Issue presents several recurring themes concerning the perirhinal cortex and its neighbours within the medial temporal lobe (MTL). First, although orthodoxy insists that the diverse constituents of the MTL operate as a single functional entity, several papers presented here challenge that idea, although some defend it. Second, although many experts hold that the MTL subserves memory but not perception, several papers presented here point to a role for certain MTL structures in both. Third, although some researchers have invoked “species differences” to account for discrepant findings, several papers presented here document a striking convergence of findings in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents. We close this Special Issue by high-lighting these recurring themes, acknowledging discrepant findings and pointing to future research that might resolve some current controversies.

John P. Capitanio ◽  
William A. Mason

This chapter examines personality in nonhuman primates where personality is seen as a dynamic, whole-organism phenomenon. Whereas in humans, the concept of personality is applied to persisting differences between individuals, in the world of animal biology, it is a concept that also describes species differences in adaptation to the environment, as well as population differences within the same species. The idea that personality reflects adaptation—at the species, population, and individual levels—is discussed from comparative/ecological, developmental, and evolutionary perspectives. The evidence that personality reflects adaptation is then used to discuss the existence, and persistence, of personality disorders in humans. The authors conclude that a broader, comparative perspective on the phenomenon of personality can provide novel ideas about what personality is, how it develops, and the value that it provides for organisms.

Behaviour ◽  
1968 ◽  
Vol 31 (3-4) ◽  
pp. 326-338 ◽  
Mary Dell Casebeer Smith ◽  
Richard F. Thompson ◽  
Roger T. Davis ◽  
Robert W. Leary

Abstract1. Lemurs (Lemur catta) and six groups of monkeys - three groups of Old World and three of New World monkeys were compared by means of gross observations in laboratory cages. 2. The profile of scores for any one animal was unambiguously diagnostic of its species. 3. Rhesus and apella monkeys specialized in manipulating objects, stumptail monkeys in social grooming, squirrel monkeys in self manipulation and woolly monkeys in vocalizing. 4. Lemurs were not as socially oriented as monkeys and spent most of their time in visual survey or looking at social objects. 5. Results were discussed in terms of implications for laboratory studies that are based largely on one nonhuman primate (Macaca mulata).

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (7) ◽  
pp. 2044
Kimberly Ekstrand ◽  
Amanda J. Flanagan ◽  
Ilyan E. Lin ◽  
Brendon Vejseli ◽  
Allicyn Cole ◽  

The accelerated pace of research into Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) necessitates periodic summaries of current research. The present paper reviews virus susceptibilities in species with frequent human contact, and factors that are best predictors of virus susceptibility. Species reviewed were those in contact with humans through entertainment, pet, or agricultural trades, and for whom reports (either anecdotal or published) exist regarding the SARS-CoV-2 virus and/or the resulting disease state COVID-19. Available literature was searched using an artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted engine, as well as via common databases, such as Web of Science and Medline. The present review focuses on susceptibility and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2, and polymorphisms in transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) that contribute to species differences. Dogs and pigs appear to have low susceptibility, while ferrets, mink, some hamster species, cats, and nonhuman primates (particularly Old World species) have high susceptibility. Precautions may therefore be warranted in interactions with such species, and more selectivity practiced when choosing appropriate species to serve as models for research.

2019 ◽  
Vol 48 (1) ◽  
pp. 30-36
Paul C. Howroyd

The ganglion of the trigeminal (V cranial) nerve is generally sampled at necropsy in nonrodent toxicology studies only when somatic or autonomic peripheral nervous system toxicity is suspected. The ganglion is far more difficult to locate in nonrodents than in rats and mice, and suitable methods to dissect it have been described only for swine. The trigeminal nerve caudal to the ganglion passes through a canal, roofed by bone in dogs and rabbits and by a tough layer of dura mater in swine and nonhuman primates. The ganglion is partly or wholly obscured by overlying dura mater. Of the 3 intracranial branches of the nerve, the ophthalmic is delicate and the maxillary and mandibular have extremely short courses within the cranial cavity. Methods that are practical in routine toxicologic pathology for the dissection of the ganglion in nonrodent laboratory species are illustrated and relevant species differences in the anatomy of the intracranial part of the trigeminal nerve are highlighted.

Edward D. DeLamater ◽  
Walter R. Courtenay ◽  
Cecil Whitaker

Comparative scanning electron microscopy studies of fish scales of different orders, families, genera and species within genera have demonstrated differences which warrant elaboration. These differences in detail appear to be sufficient to act as “fingerprints”, at least, for family differences. To date, the lateral line scales have been primarily studied. These demonstrate differences in the lateral line canals; the pattern of ridging with or without secondary protuberances along the edges; the pattern of spines or their absence on the anterior border of the scales; the presence or absence of single or multiple holes on the ventral and dorsal sides of the lateral line canal covers. The distances between the ridges in the pattern appear likewise to be important.A statement of fish scale structure and a comparison of family and species differences will be presented.The authors wish to thank Dr. Donald Marzalek and Mr. Wallace Charm of the Marine and Atmospheric Laboratory of the University of Miami and Dr. Sheldon Moll and Dr. Richard Turnage of AMR for their exhaustive help in these preliminary studies.

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