Rice origin gives more insight on new world slave trade

Sarah Elmeshad
Itinerario ◽  
1987 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 149-154 ◽  
P. C. Emmer

The drive towards the abolition of the slave trade at the beginning of the 19th century was not effective until the 1850s. It was perhaps the only migratory intercontinental movement in history which came to a complete stop because of political pressures in spite of the fact that neither the supply nor the demand for African slaves had disappeared.Because of the continuing demand for bonded labour in some of the plantation areas in the New World (notably the Guiana's, Trinidad, Cuba and Brazil) and because of a new demand for bonded labour in the developing sugar and mining industries in Mauritius, Réunion, Queensland (Australia), Natal (South Africa), the Fiji-islands and Hawaii an international search for ‘newslaves’ started.

Cameron B. Strang

This chapter examines natural knowledge among natives and newcomers from the 1500s to the mid-1700s. It suggests that European-Indian encounters generated new knowledge, patronage relationships, and webs of exchange that affected intellectual life among both groups. The chapter includes sections on conquistadors in sixteenth-century Florida, patronage networks in Florida’s mission communities, cartography and the Indian slave trade, and the networks through which Europeans and Indians exchanged specimens and commodities. In short, Europeans and natives valued knowledge and the experts who produced it as sources of power and, from the 1500s through the 1700s, learned about their mutually new world during encounters involving violence, geopolitical competition, and exchange.

Bothalia ◽  
1983 ◽  
Vol 14 (3/4) ◽  
pp. 845-848 ◽  
W. H. Eshbaugh

The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae) includes approximately 20 wild species and 4-5 domesticated taxa commonly referred to as ‘chilies’ or ‘peppers’. The pre-Colombian distribution of the genus was New World. The evolutionary history of the genus is now envisaged as including three distinct lines leading to the domesticated taxa. The route of Capsicum to the Old World is thought to have followed three different courses. First, explorers introduced it to Europe with secondary introduction into Africa via further exploratory expeditions; second, botanical gardens played a major role in introduction; and third, introduction followed the slave trade routes. Today, pepper production in Africa is of two types, vegetable and spice. Statistical profiles on production are difficult to interpret, but the data available indicate that Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana are the leading producers. Production is mainly a local phenomenon and large acreage is seldom devoted to the growing of peppers. The primary peppers in Africa are C.  annuum and C.  frutescens.

2015 ◽  
Vol 12 (20) ◽  

O artigo propõe-se a estudar alguns pontos nodais da chamada ”Era dos Congressos” (1815-1822) para pensar o modo como se reconfiguraram, naquele perá­odo, as relações entre o Velho e o Novo Mundo. Especial atenção é dada á  peculiaridade vivida pela América Portuguesa, em razão da presença da Corte no Rio de Janeiro, o que possibilitava alternativas polá­ticas distintas da América Espanhola. No que se refere ao Congresso de Verona, atribuá­mos especial atenção á s negociações referentes ao tráfico negreiro e á  consolidação da monarquia constitucional.Palavras-chave: Congresso de Viena. Congresso de Verona. Chateaubriand. Escravidão. Independência. Monarquia Constitucional.  BETWEEN VIENNA AND VERONA: one strategy for two worlds (1815-1822) Abstract: The article proposes to study some nodal points of the so called "Age of Congress (1815-1822) to think how is reconfigured, in that period, the relationship between the Old and the New World. Special attention is given to the peculiarity experienced by Portuguese America, due to the Court's presence in Rio de Janeiro, which enabled different policy alternatives from those in Spanish America. With regard to the Congress of Verona, we assign special attention to negotiations regarding slave trade and the strengthening of constitutional monarchy. Keywords: Congress of Vienna. Congress of Verona. Chateaubriand. Slavery. Independence. Constitutional Monarchy.  ENTRE VIENA Y VERONA: una estrategia para los dos mundos (1815-1822)Resumen: El artá­culo propone estudiar algunos puntos de la " Era de los Congresos" (1815-1822) para analisar cómo se   reconfiguraron en ese perá­odo, las relaciones entre el Antiguo y el Nuevo Mundo. Se presta especial atención a la peculiaridad   experimentada por América portuguesa, a causa de la presencia de la Corte, en Rá­o de Janeiro, lo que permitió alternativas polá­ticas distintas   de las que experimentadas por América española. A lo que se refiere al Congreso de Verona,   atribuimos especial atención a las negociaciones referentes al comercio de esclavos y la consolidación de la monarquá­a constitucional. Palabras clave: Congreso de Viena. Congreso de Verona. Esclavitud. Independencia. Monarquá­a constitucional.  

1974 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 223-246 ◽  
Henry A. Gemery ◽  
Jan S. Hogendorn

Two necessary conditions for the existence of New World slavery and the slave trade are an acute labour shortage and an elastic supply of coerced labour. Though the former condition has been the mainstay of hypotheses on slavery where high land/labour ratios were viewed as causal determinants, less attention has been given to the role of labour supply responses. This paper joins these conditions in a model which postulates that labour demand stemming from open resource pressures induced a politico–economic supply response in West Africa. The model shows a derived demand for labour evolving over time into a specific demand for slaves as entrepreneurs sought the lowest cost method of expanding the production of agricultural staples. Free and indentured labour were both characterized by inelastic supply, but the supply of slaves was elastic due to factors discussed within a vent for surplus framework. African governments and private traders responded to the new effective demand from the Americas with improved organization which widened the pre-existing market for slaves. The desire for imported goods, with firearms especially significant, plus various technical changes in transport, money, and credit all combined to ensure the further development of the slave trade and the continued maintenance of a longrun elastic supply pattern

Philip V. Bohlman

‘Diaspora’ explores the effect of human displacement on world music after the ‘discovery’ of the New World by Columbus in 1492, which set off a chain of diasporas. The music of diaspora addresses both place and homelessness, wandering and the dream of return. Three diasporas are investigated, beginning with the Sephardic diaspora, which arose in turn from the expulsion of Jews from Europe; the displacement of Africans resulting from colonial slave trade; and the South Asian diaspora, which draws upon music to represent the post-colonial world. Diasporic music is diverse, including reggae, klezmer, bhangra, Bollywood, and hip-hop among other genres.

1995 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
pp. 5-43 ◽  
Stanley B. Alpern

A great deal has been written in recent decades about the Atlantic slave trade, including the mechanics and terms of purchase, but relatively little about what Africans received in return for the slaves and other exports such as gold and ivory. And yet, if one is trying to reconstruct the material culture of, say, the Guinea Coast of West Africa during the slave-trade period, the vast European input cannot be ignored.The written evidence consists of many thousands of surviving bills of lading, cargo manifests, port records, logbooks, invoices, quittances, trading-post inventories, account books, shipping recommendations, and orders from African traders. English customs records of commerce with Africa during the eighteenth century, when the slave trade peaked, alone contain hundreds of thousands of facts. A thorough analysis of all available data would call for the services of a research team equipped with computers, and fill many volumes. Using a portable typewriter (now finally abandoned for WordPerfect) and a card file, and sifting hundreds of published sources, I have over the years compiled an annotated master list of European trade goods sold on a portion of the Guinea Coast from Portuguese times to the mid-nineteenth century. The geographic focus is the shoreline from Liberia to Nigeria; from it more slaves left for the New World than from any comparable stretch of the African coast. I call the area “Kwaland” for the Kwa language family to which nearly all the indigenous peoples belong.

Olwyn M. Blouet

Bryan Edwards was a Jamaican planter and politician who published a well–respected History of the West Indies in 1793. He articulated the planter view concerning the value of the West Indian colonies to Great Britain, and opposed the abolition of the slave trade. Edwards disputed European scientific speculation that the ‘New World’ environment retarded nature, although his scientific interests have largely gone unnoticed. Elected a Fellow of The Royal Society in 1794, he became a Member of Parliament in 1796, and wrote a History of Haiti in the following year. As Secretary of the African Association, Edwards edited the African travel journals of Mungo Park.

2019 ◽  
Frédéric D. Chevalier ◽  
Winka Le Clec’h ◽  
Marina McDew-White ◽  
Vinay Menon ◽  
Meghan A. Guzman ◽  

ABSTRACTDo mutations required for adaptation occur de novo, or are they segregating within populations as standing genetic variation? This question is key to understanding adaptive change in nature, and has important practical consequences for the evolution of drug resistance. We provide evidence that alleles conferring resistance to oxamniquine (OXA), an antischistosomal drug, are widespread in natural parasite populations under minimal drug pressure and predate OXA deployment. OXA has been used since the 1970s to treat Schistosoma mansoni infections in the New World where S. mansoni established during the slave trade. Recessive loss-of-function mutations within a parasite sulfotransferase (SmSULT-OR) underlie resistance, and several verified resistance mutations, including a deletion (p.E142del), have been identified in the New World. Here we investigate sequence variation in SmSULT-OR in S. mansoni from the Old World, where OXA has seen minimal usage. We sequenced exomes of 204 S. mansoni parasites from West Africa, East Africa and the Middle East, and scored variants in SmSULT-OR and flanking regions. We identified 39 non-synonymous SNPs, 4 deletions, 1 duplication and 1 premature stop codon in the SmSULT-OR coding sequence, including one confirmed resistance deletion (p.E142del). We expressed recombinant proteins and used an in vitro OXA activation assay to functionally validate the OXA-resistance phenotype for four predicted OXA-resistance mutations. Three aspects of the data are of particular interest: (i) segregating OXA-resistance alleles are widespread in Old World populations (4.29 – 14.91% frequency), despite minimal OXA usage, (ii) two OXA-resistance mutations (p.W120R, p.N171IfsX28) are particularly common (>5%) in East African and Middle-Eastern populations, (iii) the p.E142del allele has identical flanking SNPs in both West Africa and Puerto Rico, suggesting that parasites bearing this allele colonized the New World during the slave trade and therefore predate OXA deployment. We conclude that standing variation for OXA resistance is widespread in S. mansoni.AUTHOR SUMMARYIt has been argued that drug resistance is unlikely to spread rapidly in helminth parasites infecting humans. This is based, at least in part, on the premise that resistance mutations are rare or absent within populations prior to treatment, and take a long time to reach appreciable frequencies because helminth parasite generation time is long. This argument is critically dependent on the starting frequency of resistance alleles – if high levels of “standing variation” for resistance are present prior to deployment of treatment, resistance may spread rapidly. We examined frequencies of oxamniquine resistance alleles present in Schistosoma mansoni from Africa and the Middle East where oxamniquine has seen minimal use. We found that oxamniquine resistance alleles are widespread in the Old World, ranging from 4.29% in the Middle East to 14.91% in East African parasite populations. Furthermore, we show that resistance alleles from West African and the Caribbean schistosomes share a common origin, suggesting that these alleles travelled to the New World with S. mansoni during the transatlantic slave trade. Together, these results demonstrate extensive standing variation for oxamniquine resistance. Our results have important implications for both drug treatment policies and drug development efforts, and demonstrate the power of molecular surveillance approaches for guiding helminth control.

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