Azure-winged magpies’ decisions to share food are contingent on the presence or absence of food for the recipient

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jorg J. M. Massen ◽  
Sofia M. Haley ◽  
Thomas Bugnyar

Abstract Helping others is a key feature of human behavior. However, recent studies render this feature not uniquely human, and describe discoveries of prosocial behavior in non-human primates, other social mammals, and most recently in some bird species. Nevertheless, the cognitive underpinnings of this prosociality; i.e., whether animals take others’ need for help into account, often remain obscured. In this study, we take a first step in investigating prosociality in azure-winged magpies by presenting them with the opportunity to share highly desired food with their conspecifics i) in a situation in which these conspecifics had no such food, ii) in a situation in which they too had access to that highly desired food, and iii) in an open, base-line, situation where all had equal access to the same food and could move around freely. We find that azure-winged magpies regularly share high-value food items, preferably with, but not restricted to, members of the opposite sex. Most notably, we find that these birds, and specifically the females, seem to differentiate between whether others have food or do not have food, and subsequently cater to that lack. Begging calls by those without food seem to function as cues that elicit the food-sharing, but the response to that begging is condition-dependent. Moreover, analyses on a restricted dataset that excluded those events in which there was begging showed exactly the same patterns, raising the possibility that the azure-winged magpies might truly notice when others have access to fewer resources (even in the absence of vocal cues). This sharing behavior could indicate a high level of social awareness and prosociality that should be further investigated. Further studies are needed to establish the order of intentionality at play in this system, and whether azure-winged magpies might be able to attribute desire states to their conspecifics.

2008 ◽  
Vol 120 (1) ◽  
pp. 214-216 ◽  
Author(s):  
Luis Sandoval ◽  
Esteban Biamonte ◽  
Alejandro Solano-Ugalde
Keyword(s):  

2019 ◽  
Vol 31 (4) ◽  
pp. 371-408
Author(s):  
Valerio Capraro ◽  
Joseph Y Halpern

In the past few decades, numerous experiments have shown that humans do not always behave so as to maximize their material payoff. Cooperative behavior when noncooperation is a dominant strategy (with respect to the material payoffs) is particularly puzzling. Here we propose a novel approach to explain cooperation, assuming what Halpern and Pass call translucent players. Typically, players are assumed to be opaque, in the sense that a deviation by one player in a normal-form game does not affect the strategies used by other players. However, a player may believe that if he switches from one strategy to another, the fact that he chooses to switch may be visible to the other players. For example, if he chooses to defect in Prisoner’s Dilemma, the other player may sense his guilt. We show that by assuming translucent players, we can recover many of the regularities observed in human behavior in well-studied games such as Prisoner’s Dilemma, Traveler’s Dilemma, Bertrand Competition, and the Public Goods game. The approach can also be extended to take into account a player’s concerns that his social group (or God) may observe his actions. This extension helps explain prosocial behavior in situations in which previous models of social behavior fail to make correct predictions (e.g. conflict situations and situations where there is a trade-off between equity and efficiency).


2017 ◽  
Vol 6 (6) ◽  
pp. 411-421
Author(s):  
Carolyn McNamara Barry ◽  
Jason M. Prenoveau ◽  
Casie H. Morgan

Since most religions emphasize helping others and childhood family experiences contribute to emerging adults’ behavior, we explored how childhood family religious socialization was related to future emerging adults’ self-reported prosocial behavior after accounting for their current self-reported prosocial behavior. Specifically, we investigated the extent to which emerging adults’ (NT1=551) retrospective views of how frequent (FAITHS-Freq) and important (FAITHS-Importance) their childhood family faith activities were related to their future self-reported prosocial behavior toward family (PBFa), friends (PBFr) and strangers (PBSt) one year later (T2). After accounting for PB-T1 behaviors, FAITHS-frequency T1 significantly predicted T2 self-reported prosocial behavior towards strangers (PBSt), but not future (T2) PBFa or PBFr. The same pattern emerged for FAITHS-importance T1: after accounting for T1 PBs, it was only a significant predictor of T2 PBSt. Thus, for emerging adults both FAITHS-frequency and importance appear to contribute to self-perceptions as helpful toward unfamiliar others in emerging adulthood.


2019 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-39 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fagner Daniel Teixeira ◽  
Elisa Paraíso Mesquita ◽  
Michele Alves Ferreira ◽  
Felipe Carvalho de Araújo

AbstractThe Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus) is a top predator and inhabits mainly preserved forests. It occurs from Mexico to Argentina and throughout Brazil, where it is threatened by extinction. It hunts birds, mammals and reptiles, picking up both on the ground and on the branches in the forest. Here we report data on a pair and one young individual of this species registered in the southeast of Minas Gerais state, eastern portion of the Espinhaço Range, Brazil. In addition, a literature review on the diet of the species was carried out aiming gather data on food habits. The nesting territory, as well as the nest was discovered in semi-deciduous seasonal forest area. We recorded predation of a Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus) by the young. After two days of observation, the nest was overthrown, what allowed its screening for other food items discovered after analysis of some feathers and bones. Detailed records of predation of S. ornatus were non-existent or inaccurate. Taking together our own field observation and the literature review, we found 121 taxa consumed by S. ornatus. A total of 78 bird species were reported, mainly Galliformes, followed by medium-sized mammals (38 species), well represented by Rodentia and Primates.


2015 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
I Dewa Gede Udayana Putra ◽  
I Made Rustika

  Self-concept is an important factor in Adolescents. These mental aspects determine human behavior in every cycle of life. Self-concept weren’t born from lineage mental aspect but these are build and grow from human interactions with their environment naturally. Helping others is a human nature tendencies, individual has basic need to provide and seeking help. After provide a help, somebody would feel proud of what they have been done so that will improve their self valuation. Helping behavior shows by adolescents whom join Tim Bantuan Medis Janar Duta Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University. This research aim to find out the relation of helping behavior with self-concept in late adolescents. Subject in this research is late adolescents whom join Tim Bantuan Medis (TBM) Janar Duta Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University. Sample in this research is 84 persons. Instrument in this research used helping behavior scale and self-concept scale. Analysis method that used is product moment analysis technique from Pearson. Results shows correlation in this research is 0.690 (p=0.000). It is conclude that there is a significant positive correlation between helping behavior and self-concept whom join Tim Bantuan Medis (TBM) Janar Duta Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University.   Keywords: helping behavior, self concept, late adolescent  


2019 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 10-19
Author(s):  
Ratna Dwi Mei Wulandari ◽  
Sulistyo Anjarwati

Community life has never been separated from social care. Social care is an interest or interest in helping others. The closest environment has a big influence in determining the level of social awareness. To increase the social sense, it can be through various activities, both religious activities and other activities. In this study the researchers focused more on religious activities, namely the activities of recitation of Yasinan. This research was conducted in Sumberjo Village, Sutojayan Sub-District, Blitar District. Data collection is done by interviews, documentation and observations in these activities. The results of the study indicate that the Yasinan Recitation Committee has activity agendas, ranging from the annual agenda to the agenda to be implemented. This activity is carried out on the basis of Islamic brotherhood which they believe can be intimately carried out by carrying out routine and structured religious activities and for the pilgrims to recite this sense of caring that is considered very important in carrying out Islamic teachings and fostering a sense of social care. 


2019 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 10-19
Author(s):  
Ratna Dwi Mei Wulandari ◽  
Sulistyo Anjarwati

Community life has never been separated from social care. Social care is an interest or interest in helping others. The closest environment has a big influence in determining the level of social awareness. To increase the social sense, it can be through various activities, both religious activities and other activities. In this study the researchers focused more on religious activities, namely the activities of recitation of Yasinan. This research was conducted in Sumberjo Village, Sutojayan Sub-District, Blitar District. Data collection is done by interviews, documentation and observations in these activities. The results of the study indicate that the Yasinan Recitation Committee has activity agendas, ranging from the annual agenda to the agenda to be implemented. This activity is carried out on the basis of Islamic brotherhood which they believe can be intimately carried out by carrying out routine and structured religious activities and for the pilgrims to recite this sense of caring that is considered very important in carrying out Islamic teachings and fostering a sense of social care.


2019 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhang Chen ◽  
Rob Holland ◽  
Julian Quandt ◽  
Ap Dijksterhuis ◽  
Harm Veling

Understanding the formation and modification of preferences is important for explaining human behavior across many domains. Here we examined when and how preferences for food items can be changed by linking mere action versus inaction to these items. In 7 preregistered experiments, participants were trained to consistently respond to certain food items (go items) and not respond to other items (no-go items) in a go/no-go training. Next, to assess preferences, they repeatedly chose between go and no-go items for consumption. Decision time during the choice task was manipulated and measured. Immediately after training, participants chose go items more often for consumption when choosing under time pressure, for both high-value and low-value choice pairs. Preferences were reliably changed in favor of go items for choices between unhealthy foods, between healthy foods, and between healthy and unhealthy foods. Furthermore, preference change was still observed one week after training, although the effect size largely decreased. Interestingly, when participants made choices without time pressure, the effect became weaker and statistically non-significant. These results suggest that preference change induced by mere responding versus not responding is constrained to situations where people take little time to make decisions, and the effect is relatively short-lived. By showing the reliability, generalizability and boundary conditions of the effect, these findings advance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of go/no-go training, provide more insights into how the training can be effectively applied, and raise new theoretical questions on how mere action versus inaction impacts preferences.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kostadin Kushlev ◽  
Nina Radosic ◽  
Edward Francis Diener ◽  
Ed Diener

Subjective well-being (SWB) is positively related to helping others, but so far research has not explored the association of individual aspects of well-being with prosocial behavior across the world. We used a representative sample (N = 1,433,078) from the Gallup World Poll (GWP) to explore the relationship between each aspect of well-being and prosocial behavior. We explored these associations between and within 161 countries. We found that different aspects of SWB are not equally associated with prosocial behavior: While life satisfaction and positive affect consistently predicted being more prosocial, negative affect did not consistently predict being less prosocial. Our findings underline the importance of studying the effects of the different components of SWB separately, indicating that, across the globe, it is satisfaction and positive emotions—not the lack of negative emotions—that are associated with being prosocial.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lauren Alvis ◽  
Robyn Douglas ◽  
Natalie Shook ◽  
Benjamin Oosterhoff

Natural disasters and times of crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, are extremely stressful events, with mental health consequences. But, such events also provide opportunities for prosocial support between citizens, which may be related to mental health symptoms and interpersonal needs. We examined adolescents’ prosocial experiences as both actors and recipients during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic and assessed whether these experiences were associated with indicators of mental health. Adolescents (N = 437; 78% female) aged 13 to 20 years (Mage = 16.43, SD = 1.10; 63.6% White, 12.9% Hispanic/Latinx, 8.5% Asian, 4.2% Black, 2.8% Native American) were recruited across the US in early April of 2020. Participants reported on their COVID-19 prosocial experiences (helping others, receiving help) and mental health (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, burdensomeness, belongingness). Multiple regression models indicated greater engagement in COVID-19 prosocial behavior was associated with greater anxiety symptoms and greater burdensomeness. Receiving more COVID-19 help was associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher belongingness. Findings highlight the importance of furthering our understanding of the nuanced connections between prosocial experiences and adolescents' mental health to help inform post-pandemic recovery and relief efforts.


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