Exploring exchange and direct procurement strategies for Natufian food processing tools of el-Wad Terrace, Israel

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Danny Rosenberg ◽  
Tatjana M. Gluhak ◽  
Daniel Kaufman ◽  
Reuven Yeshurun ◽  
Mina Weinstein-Evron

AbstractWe present the results of a detailed geochemical provenance study of 54 Natufian (ca. 15,000–11,700 cal. BP) basalt pestles from the site of el-Wad Terrace (EWT), Israel. It is the first time precise locations from where basalt raw materials were derived are provided. The results indicate that the Natufian hunter-gatherers used multiple sources of basaltic rocks, distributed over a large area surrounding the Sea of Galilee. This area is located at a considerable distance from EWT, ca. 60–120 km away, in a region where contemporaneous Natufian basecamps are few. We consider two possible models that suggest vehicles for the transportation of these artifacts to EWT, namely the exchange obtaining model (EOM) and the direct procurement model (DPM). We argue that these mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and may have operated together. We also suggest that at a time of increasing Natufian territoriality, a large area around the Sea of Galilee remained unclaimed. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the implications for the two models. In particular, we note that the DPM implies that technological know-how for pestle production was maintained within the EWT community.

2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Danny Rosenberg ◽  
Tatjana Gluhak ◽  
Daniel Kaufman ◽  
Reuven Yeshurun ◽  
Mina Weinstein-Evron

Abstract We present the results of a detailed geochemical provenance study of 54 Natufian (ca. 15,000–11,700 cal BP) basalt pestles from the site of el-Wad Terrace (EWT), Israel. It is the first time precise locations whence basalt raw materials derive are provided. The results indicate that the Natufian hunter-gatherers used multiple sources of basaltic rocks, distributed over a large area surrounding the Sea of Galilee. For EWT, this area is located at a considerable distance of ca. 60–120 km away, in a region where contemporaneous Natufian basecamps are few. We consider two possible models that suggest vehicles for the transportation of these artifacts to EWT, namely the exchange obtaining model (EOM) and the direct procurement model (DPM). We argue that these mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and may have operated together. We also suggest that at a time of increasing Natufian territoriality, a large area around the Sea of Galilee remained unclaimed. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the implications for the two models. In particular, we note that the DPM implies that technological know-how for pestle production was maintained within the EWT community.


RSC Advances ◽  
2014 ◽  
Vol 4 (64) ◽  
pp. 33724-33729 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhiyue Han ◽  
Zhihua Zhao ◽  
Zhiming Du ◽  
Chunlin He ◽  
Linshuang Zhao ◽  
...  

Bis(1,5-diamino-4-methyl-tetrazolium)hydrazinetetrazolate (BMDATHBT) was synthesized for the first time from 1,5-diamino-4-methyl-tetrazolium sulfate (MDATS) and hydrazino bitetrazole barium (HBTBa·5H2O) as raw materials.


2012 ◽  
Vol 8 (S291) ◽  
pp. 87-92
Author(s):  
L. Guillemot

AbstractObservations of pulsars with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite have revolutionized our view of the gamma-ray pulsar population. For the first time, a large number of young gamma-ray pulsars have been discovered in blind searches of the LAT data. More generally, the LAT has discovered many new gamma-ray sources whose properties suggest that they are powered by unknown pulsars. Radio observations of gamma-ray sources have been key to the success of pulsar studies with the LAT. For example, radio observations of LAT-discovered pulsars provide constraints on the relative beaming fractions, which are crucial for pulsar population studies. Also, radio searches of LAT sources with no known counterparts have been very efficient, with the discovery of over forty millisecond pulsars. I review radio follow-up studies of LAT-discovered pulsars and unidentified sources, and discuss some of the implications of the results.


2009 ◽  
Vol 5 (S268) ◽  
pp. 301-309
Author(s):  
Verne V. Smith

AbstractConnections between observations of the lithium abundance in various types of red giants and stellar evolution are discussed here. The emphasis is on three main topics; 1) the depletion of Li as stars ascend the red giant branch for the first time, 2) the synthesis of 7Li in luminous and massive asymptotic giant branch stars via the mechanism of hot-bottom burning, and 3) the possible multiple sources of excess Li abundances found in a tiny fraction of various types of G and K giants.


1971 ◽  
Vol 37 (2) ◽  
pp. 95-117 ◽  
Author(s):  
John D. Evans

The investigation of settlements as functional units is one of the cornerstones of the approach to prehistory that Grahame Clark has done so much to foster over the years. I hope therefore that the following account of the earliest phases in the development of one which played a role of major importance in the prehistory of Crete, and so of Europe, may be an appropriate contribution to the present collection of essays in his honour.The beginnings and subsequent expansion of the Neolithic community of Knossos has become fully intelligible for the first time as a result of the two seasons of excavation carried out in 1969 and 1970. The early soundings of Evans and Mackenzie, though they indicated that the Neolithic deposit had covered a large area, threw little or no light on the growth of the settlement, and, apart from the Late Neolithic houses in the Central Court, which were cleared in 1923–4 (Evans, 1928, 1–21), none at all on its nature.


2007 ◽  
Vol 22 (10) ◽  
pp. 2863-2867 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ramasamy Sivakumar ◽  
Kazuhiko Aoyagi ◽  
Tomohiro Akiyama

The influence of different raw material mixtures on β-sialon (Si6−zAlzOzN8−z, 1 ⩽ z ⩽ 4) formation through mechanical activation coupled combustion synthesis (MA-CS) was investigated in low nitriding atmosphere of 1 MPa without diluent inclusions. The MA-CS performed for the first time on sialon raw materials with milling time of 18 min obtained sialons more than three times as pure as those obtained by CS of mixtures ball milled to 1 h (z = 3). The starting materials containing silicon, aluminum, and alumina (z = 4) after MA-CS had an increment of sialon amounts up to 88 mass%.


2004 ◽  
Vol 22 (SI - Chem. Reactions in Foods V) ◽  
pp. S80-S83 ◽  
Author(s):  
J. Pokorný ◽  
Š. Schmidt ◽  
H. T T Nguyen

Food raw materials and products contain inhibitors of oxidation reactions, both in the lipidic phase and the aqueous phase. The most important inhibitors are phenolic antioxidants. During food processing and storage, concentrations of antioxidants in the two phases reach an equilibrium. Phenolics react with lipidic free radicals, being converted into antioxidant free radicals, quinones, polymers and copolymers. Some degradation products possess an antioxidant activity, too. The relative antioxidant activity decreases with decreasing concentration of oxygen in the system and with increasing temperature. Antioxidants are more rapidly decomposed in surface layers. Health aspects of antioxidant degradation products are often neglected as the safety of antioxidant degradation products is mostly unknown.


Author(s):  
V. V. Dudin

With the dawn of printed press on the shores of the Arabic speaking world, the methods of impacting an individual’s cognition have been changed for the first time in many centuries. The rise of political and socio-political press in the region overall and in Egypt in particular was likely a by-product of Western intervention in the region, more specifically, Napoleon Bonaparte’s campaign resulting in his temporary control of Egypt. It too was Napoleon who created the first publishing houses in Egypt and it was his political views that were being spread through them. Expanding in detail on multiple sources to delve into the relevant periods, we have worked through numerous newspapers and publishers of socio-political articles in the Middle East and have noticed that Egyptian newspapers have managed to be representative of the Arab speaking printed press in the region. Egyptian editori- als have showcased the forefront of suggestive means with the purpose of leaving an imprint on the reader’s cognition, despite the fact that Egypt was not the first nation with a printed press capable of printing in Arabic. In this study we utilise quotes and examples from a range of socio-political press articles, dated as far back as 1967, as we provide examples backing our hypotheses for the changes in suggestive tactics used by the authors and editorials in their relevant periods. However, our goal in this article was not to focus on the suggestive means themselves in depth, but to rather provide evi- dence pointing to the fact that these suggestive methods have in fact undergone a process of evolution in their own right, changing with time and thus becoming more advanced and author-specific in the process. The possibility to spread a specific subjective position of an author in society without a need for speeches and the accompanying crowds became one of the defining factors to impact and shape the Arab speaking society since the XIX century. The efficacy of suggestive means in printed media has remained in present days with further evolution imminent due to the digitalisation of information, thus making suggestibility a more important aspect of printed press to explore than ever before.


2015 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 59-71
Author(s):  
Sergey Nikolaevich Korenevskiy ◽  
Andrey Sergeevich Kizilov

The article presents a brief synthesis of the results deal with the study of ceramics Maikop-novosvobodnaya community using the method of a. a. Bobrinsky and use of the microscope with 12 times magnification. it sets out ideas about raw materials, methods of construction, surface treatment. especially emphasized the problem of the use by the ancient potters of rotary devices. For the first time about such vessels were noted in the work of a. a. Bobrinsky and r. M. Munchaev in 1966, for example, vessels with a flat bottom. at present a series of examples of traces deal with use of rotary devices has expanded. in the article by a. s. Kizilov shows the simulation of the vessel of the Maikop culture and fixation of the traces of its turn without a fixed axis of rotation and with a non-fixed environment of rotation. as a result, the actual doing of those and other traces that prove the use of Maikop potters rotary devices with a fixed axis of rotation in the manufacture of vessels not only flat, but round bottom too.


2010 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 87-111 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jan A. Delcour ◽  
Charlotte Bruneel ◽  
Liesbeth J. Derde ◽  
Sara V. Gomand ◽  
Bram Pareyt ◽  
...  

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