A metabolomics comparison of plant-based meat and grass-fed meat indicates large nutritional differences despite comparable Nutrition Facts panels

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Stephan van Vliet ◽  
James R. Bain ◽  
Michael J. Muehlbauer ◽  
Frederick D. Provenza ◽  
Scott L. Kronberg ◽  

AbstractA new generation of plant-based meat alternatives—formulated to mimic the taste and nutritional composition of red meat—have attracted considerable consumer interest, research attention, and media coverage. This has raised questions of whether plant-based meat alternatives represent proper nutritional replacements to animal meat. The goal of our study was to use untargeted metabolomics to provide an in-depth comparison of the metabolite profiles a popular plant-based meat alternative (n = 18) and grass-fed ground beef (n = 18) matched for serving size (113 g) and fat content (14 g). Despite apparent similarities based on Nutrition Facts panels, our metabolomics analysis found that metabolite abundances between the plant-based meat alternative and grass-fed ground beef differed by 90% (171 out of 190 profiled metabolites; false discovery rate adjusted p < 0.05). Several metabolites were found either exclusively (22 metabolites) or in greater quantities in beef (51 metabolites) (all, p < 0.05). Nutrients such as docosahexaenoic acid (ω-3), niacinamide (vitamin B3), glucosamine, hydroxyproline and the anti-oxidants allantoin, anserine, cysteamine, spermine, and squalene were amongst those only found in beef. Several other metabolites were found exclusively (31 metabolites) or in greater quantities (67 metabolites) in the plant-based meat alternative (all, p < 0.05). Ascorbate (vitamin C), phytosterols, and several phenolic anti-oxidants such as loganin, sulfurol, syringic acid, tyrosol, and vanillic acid were amongst those only found in the plant-based meat alternative. Large differences in metabolites within various nutrient classes (e.g., amino acids, dipeptides, vitamins, phenols, tocopherols, and fatty acids) with physiological, anti-inflammatory, and/or immunomodulatory roles indicate that these products should not be viewed as truly nutritionally interchangeable, but could be viewed as complementary in terms of provided nutrients. The new information we provide is important for making informed decisions by consumers and health professionals. It cannot be determined from our data if either source is healthier to consume.

2007 ◽  
Vol 25 (18_suppl) ◽  
pp. 1523-1523
J. Kim ◽  
D. Tsavachidou ◽  
K. Do ◽  
S. Wen ◽  
R. Babaian ◽  

1523 Background: To identify genes that distinguish between treatments, tumor types, and their interaction, we undertook a microarray analysis of tissue in a preoperative chemoprevention study of L-selenomethionine (SeMet) and vitamin E (VE) in prostate cancer. Methods: Forty-eight men with prostate cancer were enrolled in a single-institution, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that randomized patients into four groups receiving 200 μg SeMet, 400 IU VE, a combination of the two, or placebo (see 2006 ASCO abstract 1007). All patients also received a multivitamin and vitamin C (250 mg) daily. Modeled on the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial, this study included patients scheduled for prostatectomy within 3 to 6 wk of registration who had a prostate-specific antigen level <10 ng/mL within 3 mo of registration, clinical stage T1c/T2 disease, and a Gleason score =7. From core biopsy specimens, we isolated cancerous and noncancerous cells, tumor-adjacent stroma, and non-tumor adjacent stroma of 38 evaluable radical prostatectomy specimens using laser capture microdissection. The cDNA hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays was generated from extracted RNA, which had undergone two rounds of linear amplification. Expression levels were extracted using the positional-dependent nearest-neighbor model, and after ANOVA model analysis, effects were contrasted using the approximate z-test with statistic z. The beta-uniform mixture model was used to analyze p values and control the false discovery rate. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis followed. Results: Differentially expressed genes were selected that were common in the combination and selenium arms or in the combination and VE arms: unique in tumor-69 in combination and selenium, 71 in combination and VE; unique in stroma-64 in combination and selenium, 45 in combination and VE; unique in normal tissue-48 in combination and selenium, 38 in combination and VE. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that gene expression may be correlated with specific therapeutic interventions, and this analysis indicates that dietary antioxidants modulate gene expression in human prostate cancer cells and pathways relevant to prostate carcinogenesis. No significant financial relationships to disclose.

2016 ◽  
Aristeidis G. Telonis ◽  
Rogan Magee ◽  
Phillipe Loher ◽  
Inna Chervoneva ◽  
Eric Londin ◽  

Previously, we demonstrated that miRNA isoforms (isomiRs) are constitutive and their expression profiles depend on tissue, tissue state, and disease subtype. We have now extended our isomiR studies to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) repository. Specifically, we studied whether isomiR profiles can distinguish amongst the 32 cancers. We analyzed 10,271 datasets from 32 cancers and found 7,466 isomiRs from 807 miRNA hairpin-arms to be expressed above threshold. Using the top 20% most abundant isomiRs, we built a classifier that relied on “binary” isomiR profiles: isomiRs were simply represented as ‘present’ or ‘absent’ and, unlike previous methods, all knowledge about their expression levels was ignored. The classifier could label tumor samples with an average sensitivity of 93% and a False Discovery Rate of 3%. Notably, its ability to classify well persisted even when we reduced the set of used features (=isomiRs) by a factor of 10. A counterintuitive finding of our analysis is that the isomiRs and miRNA loci with the highest ability to classify tumors arenotthe ones that have been attracting the most research attention in the miRNA field. Our results provide a framework in which to study cancer-type-specific isomiRs and explore their potential uses as cancer biomarkers

2012 ◽  
Vol 109 (11) ◽  
pp. 1923-1933 ◽  
Lynn Cialdella-Kam ◽  
David C. Nieman ◽  
Wei Sha ◽  
Mary Pat Meaney ◽  
Amy M. Knab ◽  

Quercetin, a flavonol in fruits and vegetables, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating influences. The purpose of the present study was to determine if quercetin, vitamin C and niacin supplements (Q-500 = 500 mg/d of quercetin, 125 mg/d of vitamin C and 5 mg/d of niacin; Q-1000 = 1000 mg/d of quercetin, 250 mg/d of vitamin C and 10 mg/d of niacin) would alter small-molecule metabolite profiles and serum quercetin conjugate levels in adults. Healthy adults (fifty-eight women and forty-two men; aged 40–83 years) were assigned using a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled trial to one of three supplement groups (Q-1000, Q-500 or placebo). Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0, 1 and 3 months. Quercetin conjugate concentrations were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS, and metabolite profiles were measured using two MS platforms (UPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight MS (TOFMS) and GC-TOFMS). Statistical procedures included partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and linear mixed model analysis with repeated measures. After accounting for age, sex and BMI, quercetin supplementation was associated with significant shifts in 163 metabolites/quercetin conjugates (false discovery rate, P< 0·05). The top five metabolite shifts were an increase in serum guaiacol, 2-oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid, allocystathionine and two bile acids. Inflammatory and oxidative stress metabolites were not affected. PLS-DA revealed a clear separation only between the 1000 mg/d and placebo groups (Q2Y= 0·763). The quercetin conjugate, isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide, had the highest concentration at 3 months followed by quercetin-3-glucuronide, quercetin-3-sulphate and quercetin diglucuronide. In human subjects, long-term quercetin supplementation exerts disparate and wide-ranging metabolic effects and changes in quercetin conjugate concentrations. Metabolic shifts were apparent at the 1000 mg/d dose; further research is required to understand the health implications of these shifts.

2020 ◽  
Vol 4 (Supplement_2) ◽  
pp. 785-785
Stephan van Vliet ◽  
James Bain ◽  
Micheal Muelbauer ◽  
Scott Kronberg ◽  
Fred Provenza ◽  

Abstract Objectives Novel plant-based meat alternatives are becoming increasingly popular with consumers. The new generation of meat alternatives is specifically formulated to closely mimic the taste, sensory experience, and nutritional composition of meat. The goal of this work was to perform unbiased analysis of the biochemical composition of ground beef versus a novel plant-based meat alternative to determine their nutritional equivalency. Methods Ground beef from eighteen different steers was purchased from Alderspring Ranch, ID. Eighteen different packages of a plant-based meat alternative were purchased from a local grocery store. Non-targeted metabolomic analysis of sample homogenates was conducted via gas chromatography/electron-ionization mass spectrometry (GC/ei-MS) in the Metabolomics Laboratory of the Duke Molecular Physiology Institute. Following log-transformation, t-test were used to compare all individual analytes using a p-value (false discovery rate) cutoff of P &lt; 0.01, without adjustment for multiple comparisons. Multivariate analyses (principal component and cluster analysis) was performed using software procedures in MetaboAnalyst 4.0. Results A total of 159 out of 184 detected metabolites were found to be different between beef and the plant-based meat alternative (P &lt; 0.01). Metabolites such as niacinamide, calcium pantothenate, creatinine/creatine, anserine, hydroxyproline, and glucosamine were only found in beef, while metabolites such as delta-tocopherol, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, vanillic acid, and various plant sterols were only found in the plant-based alternative. Conclusions Despite suggested similarity based on their Nutrition Facts panel, we show that metabolites with important regulatory roles in human health are either absent or present in lower quantities in the plant-based meat alternative. These data suggest that novel plant-based meat alternatives should, at present, not be viewed as direct nutritional replacements for red meat. Funding Sources None.

2018 ◽  
Vol 36 (12) ◽  
pp. 1288-1294 ◽  
Clifton O. Brock ◽  
Leslie A. Moroz ◽  
Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman

Objective To determine the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (SPTD) associated with transvaginal cervical length (TVCL) in an unselected cohort. Study Design This is a retrospective study of serial TVCLs in unselected twin gestations. Receiver operator curves for SPTD were constructed from TVCLs at 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks. Prediction thresholds were determined using a false discovery rate of 10%. The risk of SPTD was compared with previously published, prospective data from a meta-analysis. Results A total of 1,228 women were included. SPTD occurred prior to 35 weeks in 232 (18.9%), 126 (10.3%), and 24 (2.0%) women prior to 35, 32, and 28 weeks. TVCL was most predictive at 22 weeks (area under the curve = 0.67). TVCL thresholds for predicting SPTD prior to 35, 32, and 28 weeks were 3.1, 3.0, and 2.9 cm. Compared with a previous meta-analysis, the risk of SPTD < 34, 32, and 28 weeks was lower (positive likelihood ratio 9.0 vs. 5.4, 10.1 vs. 5.9, and 9.6 vs. 4.3). Conclusion TVCL is modestly predictive of SPTD in twin gestations. Compared with previous prospective studies, this cohort has lower risk of SPTD at similar TVCLs.

2015 ◽  
Vol 14 (9) ◽  
pp. 2394-2404 ◽  
Mikhail M. Savitski ◽  
Mathias Wilhelm ◽  
Hannes Hahne ◽  
Bernhard Kuster ◽  
Marcus Bantscheff

2010 ◽  
Vol 22 (9) ◽  
pp. 133
N. Hatzirodos ◽  
H. F. Irving-Rodgers ◽  
R. J. Rodgers

Small antral follicles <5 mm in bovine ovaries undergo one of two fates: further growth and selection to become the dominant follicle for ovulation, or atresia. Atresia can occur before, during or after selection. As follicle grow past >5 mm there is upregulation in expression of focimatrix genes and later upregulation of the LH receptor and steroidogenic enzymes, especially aromatase, in the granulosa cells. For follicles at sizes >5 mm entering atresia the granulosa cells are the first in the follicle to die. Thus expression of genes in granulosa cells is critical to the fate of the follicle. To examine granulosa cells of small follicles we collected bovine ovaries and dissected follicles, removed part of the follicle wall for subsequent classification of health or atresia, and harvested the remaining granulosa cells for RNA isolation. Follicles examined included small follicles (<5 mm), both healthy (n = 10) and atretic (n =5), and healthy large follicles (>10 mm, n = 4). RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays and the results were analysed using Partek Genomics Suite software. The number of genes which were 2 fold differentially regulated between large and small follicles by Benjamini Hochberg post hoc test (False Discovery Rate, P < 0.05) was 2408 and between healthy and atretic small follicles was 4931. The coefficient of variation (CV; SD/mean × 100) for the expression level of each gene for each group was calculated. A gene frequency distribution indicated greater heterogeneity in expression levels in small follicles in comparison to large follicles. Furthermore, the greatest variability in genes in small follicles includes those that are either up or down regulated due to atresia or growth. We therefore conclude that variability in small follicles is a consequence of alternative fates that small follicle can undergo.

2020 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Harshi Weerakoon ◽  
Jeremy Potriquet ◽  
Alok K. Shah ◽  
Sarah Reed ◽  
Buddhika Jayakody ◽  

AbstractData independent analysis (DIA) exemplified by sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH-MS) provides robust quantitative proteomics data, but the lack of a public primary human T-cell spectral library is a current resource gap. Here, we report the generation of a high-quality spectral library containing data for 4,833 distinct proteins from human T-cells across genetically unrelated donors, covering ~24% proteins of the UniProt/SwissProt reviewed human proteome. SWATH-MS analysis of 18 primary T-cell samples using the new human T-cell spectral library reliably identified and quantified 2,850 proteins at 1% false discovery rate (FDR). In comparison, the larger Pan-human spectral library identified and quantified 2,794 T-cell proteins in the same dataset. As the libraries identified an overlapping set of proteins, combining the two libraries resulted in quantification of 4,078 human T-cell proteins. Collectively, this large data archive will be a useful public resource for human T-cell proteomic studies. The human T-cell library is available at SWATHAtlas and the data are available via ProteomeXchange (PXD019446 and PXD019542) and PeptideAtlas (PASS01587).

2020 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Amir Momen-Roknabadi ◽  
Panos Oikonomou ◽  
Maxwell Zegans ◽  
Saeed Tavazoie

AbstractGenome-scale CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) is widely utilized to study cellular processes in a variety of organisms. Despite the dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model eukaryote, an inducible genome-wide CRISPRi library in yeast has not yet been presented. Here, we present a genome-wide, inducible CRISPRi library, based on spacer design rules optimized for S. cerevisiae. We have validated this library for genome-wide interrogation of gene function across a variety of applications, including accurate discovery of haploinsufficient genes and identification of enzymatic and regulatory genes involved in adenine and arginine biosynthesis. The comprehensive nature of the library also revealed refined spacer design parameters for transcriptional repression, including location, nucleosome occupancy and nucleotide features. CRISPRi screens using this library can identify genes and pathways with high precision and a low false discovery rate across a variety of experimental conditions, enabling rapid and reliable assessment of genetic function and interactions in S. cerevisiae.

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