Clinical Factors Associated with Progression to AIDS in the Italian Cohort of HIV-Positive Hemophiliacs

1994 ◽  
Vol 72 (01) ◽  
pp. 033-038 ◽  
N Schinaia ◽  
A M G Ghirardini ◽  
M G Mazzucconi ◽  
G Tagariello ◽  
M Morfini ◽  

SummaryThis study updates estimates of the cumulative incidence of AIDS among Italian patients with congenital coagulation disorders (mostly hemophiliacs), and elucidates the role of age at seroconversion, type and amount of replacement therapy, and HBV co-infection in progression. Information was collected both retrospectively and prospectively on 767 HIV-1 positive patients enrolled in the on-going national registry of patients with congenital coagulation disorders. The seroconversion date was estimated as the median point of each patient’s seroconversion interval, under a Weibull distribution applied to the overall interval. The independence of factors associated to faster progression was assessed by multivariate analysis. The cumulative incidence of AIDS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis at 17.0% (95% Cl = 14.1-19.9%) over an 8-year period for Italian hemophiliacs. Patients with age greater than or equal to 35 years exhibited the highest cumulative incidence of AIDS over the same time period, 32.5% (95% Cl = 22.2-42.8%). Factor IX recipients (i.e. severe B hemophiliacs) had higher cumulative incidence of AIDS (23.3% vs 14.2%, p = 0.01) than factor VIII recipients (i.e. severe A hemophiliacs), as did severe A hemophiliacs on less-than-20,000 IU/yearly of plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates, as opposed to A hemophiliacs using an average of more than 20,000 IU (18.8% vs 10.9%, p = 0.02). No statistically significant difference in progression was observed between HBsAg-positive vs HBsAg-negative hemophiliacs (10.5% vs 16.4%, p = 0.10). Virological, immunological or both reasons can account for such findings, and should be investigated from the laboratory standpoint.

Blood ◽  
2008 ◽  
Vol 112 (11) ◽  
pp. 793-793 ◽  
Mohamad Mohty ◽  
Myriam Labopin ◽  
Tapani Ruutu ◽  
Alois Gratwohl ◽  
Gerard Socie ◽  

Abstract The exact role of RIC allo-SCT for adult patients with ALL is still under considerable debate. While the use of such so-called nonmyeloablative or RIC regimens has emerged as an attractive modality to decrease transplant-related mortality, toxicity might represent only one aspect of the problem, since ALL encompasses a group of chemosensitive diseases, raising concerns that significant reduction of the intensity of the preparative regimen may have a negative impact on long-term leukemic control. In this multicenter retrospective study, the outcomes of 601 adult (age at transplantation >45 y.) patients with ALL who underwent transplantation in complete remission (CR) with an HLA–identical sibling donor, were analyzed according to 2 types of conditioning: RIC in 97 patients, and standard MAC (or high-dose) in 504 patients. Both groups were comparable in terms of gender, CR status (CR1 and CR2), interval from diagnosis to allo-SCT, and recipient/donor CMV serostatus. Patients in the RIC groups were older (median 56 y. vs. 50y in the MAC group; P<0.0001), Most of the patients in the MAC group received high dose TBI (80%), while the majority of the RIC regimens included either low-dose TBI or were ATG+chemotherapy-based regimens. The majority of patients (88%) from the RIC group received a PBSC graft. In the MAC group, the stem cell source consisted of bone marrow in 42% of patients. With a median follow-up of 13 months (range, 1–127), the incidences of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD were: 35%, 14%, and 28%, 10% in the MAC and RIC groups respectively (P=NS). The cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality at 2 years (NRM) was 32% (MAC) vs. 22% (RIC) (P=0.04). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 2 years was 30% (MAC) vs. 42% (RIC) (P=0.0007). However, the latter differences did not translate into any significant difference in term of leukemia-free survival (LFS) at 2 years: 38% (MAC) vs. 37% (RIC) (P=0.42). In multivariate analysis for LFS, the status at transplant was the only factor associated with an improved LFS (p<0.0001, RR=0.55, 95%CI, 0.42–0.72). The results of this retrospective registry based study suggest that RIC regimens may reduce NRM rate after allo-SCT for adult ALL when compared to standard MAC regimens, but with a higher risk of disease relapse and no impact on LFS. The latter represent promising findings, since patients who received RIC are likely to have serious comorbidities, which led the transplantation center to choose RIC, and surely most of these patients would not have received a standard allo-SCT in most institutions. Therefore, RIC allo-SCT for adult ALL (>45 y.) may represent a valid therapeutic option when a conventional standard conditioning is not possible, warranting further prospective investigations.

P J Clamp ◽  
K De-Loyde ◽  
A R Maw ◽  
S Gregory ◽  
J Golding ◽  

Abstract Objective This study aimed to analyse social, health and environmental factors associated with the development of chronic otitis media by age nine. Method This was a prospective, longitudinal, birth cohort study of 6560 children, reviewed at age nine. Chronic otitis media defined as previous surgical history or video-otoscopic changes of tympanic membrane retraction, perforation or cholesteatoma. Non-affected children were used as the control group. Results Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between chronic otitis media and otorrhoea, snoring, grommet insertion, adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, hearing loss, abnormal tympanograms and preterm birth. Multivariate analysis suggests many of these factors may be interrelated. Conclusion The association between chronic otitis media and otorrhoea, abnormal tympanograms and grommets supports the role of the Eustachian tube and otitis media (with effusion or acute) in the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media. The role of snoring, adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy is unclear. Associations suggested by previous studies (sex, socioeconomic group, parental smoking, maternal education, childcare, crowding and siblings) were not found to be significant predictors in this analysis.

2015 ◽  
Vol 33 (7_suppl) ◽  
pp. 378-378
Jonathan J. Paly ◽  
Phillip John Gray ◽  
Chun Chieh Lin ◽  
Helmneh Sineshaw ◽  
Ahmedin Jemal ◽  

378 Background: Testicular seminoma is the most common solid tumor seen in patients aged 15-35 and disease specific survival approaches 100% in controlled studies, even for those with node-positive disease. We sought to describe modern practice patterns as well as survival outcomes and factors associated with receipt of adjuvant therapy for patients presenting with initial clinical stage (CS) IIA/B disease. Methods: Data on patients diagnosed with CS IIA/B testicular seminoma from 1998-2011 were extracted from the National Cancer Data Base. Demographic, clinical, treatment, payer characteristics were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy or adjuvant radiation therapy (ART) within 6 months of orchiectomy. Five-year Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS) by CS and treatment was calculated. Results: In total, 2,185 patients with CS II A/B were included. Management included orchiectomy alone (11.35%), adjuvant chemotherapy (27.46%), or ART (52.72%). In multivariate analysis, receipt of orchiectomy plus ART rather than adjuvant chemotherapy was more likely with CS IIA status (OR 2.4, p < 0.01), treatment outside of teaching or NCI network institution (OR 1.9-2.8, p < 0.02), or tumor size ≥4cm (OR 1.6, p < 0.01). Receipt of ART was less likely in Hispanic patients (OR 0.6, p=0.03) or in those diagnosed from 2006-2011 (OR 0.5, p < 0.01). Five-year OS for all patients was 97.2% for orchiectomy + ART, and 93.9% for orchiectomy + chemotherapy (log-rank p = 0.01). For CS IIA patients, 5-year OS was 98.3% for orchiectomy + ART versus 93.6% for orchiectomy + chemotherapy (log-rank p < 0.01). Differences in OS for CS IIB treated with chemotherapy or ART were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Consistent with national guideline recommendations, our analysis suggest that compared to chemotherapy, ART is associated with a survival advantage for CS IIA patients. Chemotherapy or ART showed no significant difference in effectiveness in patients with CS IIB. Disease bulk, race, treatment center type, and time period are associated with choice of adjuvant therapy. Longer follow-up and validation of these results is needed to account for late effects of treatment.

2020 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 183-191
Elizabeth H. Stephens ◽  
Aqsa Shakoor ◽  
Shimon E. Jacobs ◽  
Shunpei Okochi ◽  
Ariela L. Zenilman ◽  

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can provide crucial support for single ventricle (SV) patients at various stages of palliation. However, characterization of the utilization and outcomes of ECMO in these unique patients remains incompletely studied. Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective review of SV patients between 2010 and 2017 who underwent ECMO cannulation with primary end point of survival to discharge and secondary end point of survival to decannulation or orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Multivariate analysis was performed for factors predictive of survival to discharge and survival to decannulation. Results: Forty SV patients with a median age of one month (range: 3 days to 15 years) received ECMO support. The incidence of ECMO was 14% for stage I, 3% for stage II, and 4% for stage III. Twenty-seven (68%) patients survived to decannulation, and 21 (53%) patients survived to discharge, with seven survivors to discharge undergoing OHT. Complications included infection (40%), bleeding (40%), thrombosis (33%), and radiographic stroke (45%). Factors associated with survival to decannulation included pre-ECMO lactate (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41-0.90, P = .013) and post-ECMO bicarbonate (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.0-1.5, P = .018). Factors associated with survival to discharge included central cannulation (HR: 40.0, 95% CI: 3.1-500.0, P = .005) and lack of thrombotic complications (HR: 28.7, 95% CI: 2.1-382.9, P = .011). Conclusions: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be useful to rescue SV patients with approximately half surviving to discharge, although complications are frequent. Early recognition of the role of heart transplant is imperative. Further study is required to identify areas for improvement in this population.

2019 ◽  
Vol 37 (15_suppl) ◽  
pp. 6058-6058
Harsh Dhar ◽  
Anil D'Cruz ◽  
Richa Vaish ◽  
Rohini W Hawaldar ◽  
Sudeep Gupta ◽  

6058 Background: Depth of invasion (DOI) has been incorporated in the new AJCC TNM staging (8th edition) for oral cancers. We hypothesized that the negative effect of increasing DOI on outcomes was a result of an increased propensity to node metastasis and appropriate neck treatment would negate its detrimental effect on outcomes. Methods: Patients with T1/ T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma, clinically node negative, from a previously reported Randomized Controlled Trial (NCT 00193765) formed the cohort for this study. Patients were restaged according to the new staging system . Overall survival(OS) was estimated by the revised T stage for the entire cohort and separately for those who underwent END and those who did not (TND arm) using Kaplan Meier and log rank test . Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard model making adjustment for neck treatment, T stage, site, prognostic factors and the interaction between revised T stage and neck treatment. Results: Of the 596 patients 577 were evaluable, with a median follow up of 77.57 months. Initial pT staging was pT1, 389(67.4%); pT2, 181(31.4%); pT3, 7(1.2%) and was modified to pT1, 195(33.8%); pT2, 280(48.5%); pT3, 102(17.7%) on restaging . 288 patients underwent END and 289 did not (TND arm). For the entire cohort 5-year OS rates were 79.0% [95 %CI, 73.12-84.88] for pT1, 69.4% [95% CI, 63.91-74.89] for pT2 and 53.0% [95% CI, 43.2 -62.8] for pT3 with significant difference between the 3 groups (p < 0.001). In those without upfront neck treatment( TND ), OS difference was maintained between the pT1 and pT2 groups [81.1% (95%CI, 73.26-88.94) vs 65.0% (95%CI, 56.77-73.23)], p = 0.004. This difference was not apparent in the END arm ,pT1 -76.9% (95 %CI, 68.47-85.33) vs pT2 -73.7% (95%CI, 66.25-81.15), p = 0.73. T3 tumours had uniformly poor survival irrespective of neck treatment. On multivariate analysis of the revised pT1/T2 cohort (n = 475), pT stage, neck treatment and grade were independent prognostic factors impacting OS. There was a significant interaction between the T stage and neck treatment (p = 0.03). Conclusions: When DOI < 10 mm, END supplants the prognostic implication of depth with similar outcomes for T1 and T2 tumours (new AJCC staging). The exact role of DOI on outcomes warrants further research. Clinical trial information: NCT00193765.

2017 ◽  
Vol 35 (15_suppl) ◽  
pp. 11024-11024
Loic Lebellec ◽  
Francois Bertucci ◽  
Emmanuelle Tresch-Bruneel ◽  
Isabelle Laure Ray-Coquard ◽  
Axel Le Cesne ◽  

11024 Background: WP is an active regimen for treatment of AS pts (Ray-Coquard JCO 2015). We report here the correlative analysis conducted during a phase 2 trial assessing WP +/- B. Methods: Circulating pro/anti-angiogenic factors (FGF, PlGF, SCF, Selectin, thrombospondin, VEGF, VEGF-C) were collected at D1 and D8. Prognostic value for PFS was assessed using Cox model (biomarkers as continuous variables). We attempt to identify subgroups of pts benefiting from adding B using interaction tests (predictive factors). Results: Among the 51 pts enrolled in this trial, 45 were analyzable: 20 in Arm A (WP without B) and 25 in Arm B (with B). Median PFS was 5.5 and 6.1 months, respectively (p = 0.84). Samples were collected in 45 pts at D1 and 42 pts at D1 and 8. Baseline biomarkers were similar in both arms (excluding Selectin, significantly lower in arm A: median of 25 vs. 35 ng/mL, p = 0.03). In arm A, there was no significant difference between values at D1 and D8. In arm B, there were a significant decrease in VEGF (from a median of 0.49 to 0.08 ng/mL; p < 0.01) and selectin (from a median of 35.3 to 31.7 ng/mL; p < 0.01), and a significant increase in PlGF (from a median of 16.1 to 30.0 pg/mL; p < 0.01). In univariate analysis, factors associated with PFS were: de novo vs. radiation-induced AS (HR = 2.39 (p < 0.01), visceral vs. superficial AS (HR = 2.04; p < 0.03), VEGF-C at D1 (HR = 0.77; p < 0.03), FGF at D8 (HR = 1.17; p < 0.01), difference in FGF D8-D1 (HR = 1.24; p < 0.01), and PlGF value at D1 (HR = 1.02; p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, factors associated with PFS were: de novo AS (HR = 2.39; p = 0.03), VEGF-C at D1 (HR = 0.73; p < 0.02) and FGF difference between D8 and D1 (HR = 1.16; p < 0.02). None of these factors were associated with benefit of adding B. Conclusions: Baseline VEGF-C levels and change in FGF were independent prognostic factors in pts with or without B. Addition of B significantly decreased the level of circulating VEGF and selectin and increased the level of circulating PlGF in AS patients. We did not identify subgroup of pts benefiting from adding of B to WP. Clinical trial information: NCT01303497.

Blood ◽  
2012 ◽  
Vol 120 (21) ◽  
pp. 3369-3369
Augusto B. Federici ◽  
Maria C Carraro ◽  
Antonella Lattuada ◽  
Chiara Vanelli ◽  
Veronica Sciumbata ◽  

Abstract Abstract 3369 Background: Patients with Ph-negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN) such as Polycythemia Vera (PV), Essential Thrombocythemia (ET) and Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF) can be exposed during the course of these MPN to thrombotic and bleeding complications, with increased morbidity and mortality. Age, previous history of thrombosis, increased White Blood Cell (WBC) and Jak2 allele burden have been proposed as risk factors for Venous (VTE) and Arterial (ATE) thromboses while bleeding has been previously associated with abnormalities of the von Willebrand factor (VWF). Aims: To investigate any significant role of ADAMTS-13 and VWF activities in the thrombotic and bleeding complications observed in a small but well characterized cohort of MPN patients. Patients and Methods: 88 consecutive patients were diagnosed at the Hematology and Transfusion Medicine Division, L.SACCO University Hospital of Milan, according to WHO criteria. Patients signed an informed consent to participate in this clinical study with a protocol approved by local IRB and they showed MPN type (%), mean age (range), gender M/F and Jak2 positivity (%) as follows: PV[n=42 (48%), 68 (36–86), 18/24; 85.7%]; ET [n=34 (38%), 66 (30–93), 10/24, 61.7%]; PMF [n=12 (14%), 67 (37–88), 7/5, 58%]. Thrombotic and bleeding episodes were recorded and managed from the time of diagnosis and associated with the use of aspirin (ASA) and of other MPN therapies. Among additional lab parameters, plasmatic ADAMTS-13 and VWF activities were also measured at enrolment as endothelial/platelet marker. These activities were assayed with Technozym ADAMTS-13 activity (Technoclone GmbH, Austria), Innovance VWF-GPIb activity (Siemens AG, Germany) and HemosIL-VWF antigen (Instrumentation Laboratory, USA). Multimeric analyses were also tested using very sensitive intermediate SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS-17.2. Results: 59/88 (67%) patients did not show any thrombotic or bleeding complications during the 6-year follow-up. In these cases mean (range) values of VWF:GPIb and VWF:Ag were 104 (29–202) and 133 (52–288) U/dL while ADAMTS-13 was 102 (63–143). 20/88 (23%) cases showed at least one thrombotic event (13ATE/7VTE): AMI (6), STROKE (6), TIA (2), PE (1), DVT (7). Patients with thromboses showed relatively higher values VWF:GPIb and lower ADAMTS-13 and this was confirmed in multivariate analysis especially for ET [VWF:GPIb=135 (61–237) U/dL, p=0.004 and ADAMTS-13=89(62–134), p=0.009]. Major bleeding episodes mainly mucosal (5 gastrointestinal, 3 post-surgery, 1 severe menorrhagia) requiring blood transfusions or hysterectomy were observed in 9/88 (10%) patients. At the multivariate analysis, major bleedings were significantly associated with lower VWF:GPIb [68 (25–111) U/dL, p=0.022), lower VWF:Ag [93 (35–146) U/dL, p=0.016] and to the ASA intake (p=0.006). Most of these bleeders showed also a relative loss of the highest molecular weight multimers. Conclusions: Based on these observations, we confirm that thrombotic events in MPN may certainly have multiple risk factors: however, lower ADAMTS-13 and higher VWF activities might play a role as additional risk factors especially in ET. Conversely, lower levels of VWF with loss of the largest multimers are important risk factors for bleeding in MPN especially in patients treated with ASA. Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

Blood ◽  
2007 ◽  
Vol 110 (11) ◽  
pp. 619-619
Charalampia Kyriakou ◽  
C. Canals ◽  
A. Sureda ◽  
G. Taghipour ◽  
J. Cornelissen ◽  

Abstract Despite effectiveness of standard chemotherapy regimens, complete response is infrequent in WM patients and there is no cure. The role of Allo-SCT has not been extensively explored and the available data are limited. In this retrospective European multicenter study we report the outcome of 106 WM patients (69 male) who underwent an Allo-SCT between 1989 and 2005 and were reported to the EBMT Lymphoma Database. The median age at transplant was 49 years (21–65), and the median time from diagnosis to SCT was 34 months (5–310). The median number of treatment lines prior to allo-SCT was 3(1–10) and 19 patients had failed a prior autograft. Ten (10%) patients were in 1st maximum response (MR), 35 (33%) in PR1, 29 (27%) in PR≥2 and 32 (30%) had refractory disease at the time of transplantation. Forty-four patients were treated with conventional (CT) conditioning protocols; [Cy/TBI n=24, Melphalan/TBI, n=6, BuCy n=14] and 62 with a reduced intensity protocol (RIC); [Fludarabine based regimen n=43, Low dose TBI/Cy n=19] With a median follow up of 31 months (3 to 169) 59 (56%) patients, are alive and free of disease. Forty-eight (45%) patients developed aGVHD [Grades I-II (n=34), Grades III-IV (n=14)] with no statistically significant difference between conventional and RIC groups. Five out of nine RIC patients developed aGVHD following the administration of donor lymphocytes for either residual disease or mixed chimerism. Sixteen patients (15%) developed limited and 11 (10%) extensive chronic GVHD. Seventeen (16%) patients relapsed at a median time of 8 (1–89) months after allo-SCT. Thirty-five (33%) patients died, 5 (5%) from disease relapse or progression and 30 (28%) from regimen toxicity. Non-relapse mortality rates were estimated of 30% and 33%, at 1 and 3 years, respectively, for the CT group, and 24% and 30% for the RIC group of patients. Relapse rates at 1 and 3 years were 10%, 12% for the CT group and 14% and 25% for the RIC. Progression free survival (PFS) rates were 60%, 54% and 54% at 1, 3 and 5 years for the CT and 61%, 44% and 39% for the RIC patients. Overall survival was 65%, 59% and 59% for the CT and 71%, 66% and 66% for the RIC at 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that chemorefractory disease at allo-SCT was associated with a significantly higher relapse rate [p<0.03; 95% CI 1.1–8.9] while the use of TBI in the conditioning regimen with a significantly lower relapse rate [p<0.02; 95% CI 1.1–9.3]. There were no differences in outcome when considering the intensity of the conditioning regimen. In conclusion, allo-SCT is a feasible and well-tolerated procedure in this group of elderly patients with advanced disease. In addition, relapse rate after the allogeneic procedure is low resulting in a good long-term outcome.

2020 ◽  
Vol 127 (Suppl_1) ◽  
Manish Suryapalam ◽  
Mohammed Kashem ◽  
Val Rakita ◽  
Yoshiya Toyoda

Introduction: As the prevalence of heart failure increases among older patients, the potential role of heart transplant (HTx) in this demographic demands further investigation. Survival outcome analysis of the elderly has primarily been analyzed in single-center studies, and the few long term studies performed have included a timeframe to the 1980s, introducing substantial variance from much poorer survival outcomes. We investigated the 5 to 10 year survival outcomes of more modern heart transplantation patients by analyzing the UNOS database. Methods: Heart transplantation data for 32,337 patients (2000-2014) was divided into three different age groups- <60, 60-69, and ≥70 years old. Gender, ethnicity, height, weight, BMI, ICU stay, ischemic time, length of stay (LOS), and creatinine level were evaluated for significance using Chi-Squared and H-Tests as appropriate (p<0.05). Survival outcome was assessed using a Kaplan-Meier Curve and log-rank tests. Results: 23,267 were <60, 8,459 were 60-69, and 611 were ≥70, with mean ages of 38±0.1, 64±0.0, and 72±0.1 respectively. The distribution of gender, ethnicity, ischemic time, BMI, height, and weight was significantly different between the cohorts, with p=0.000 for all. Survival analysis indicated complete pairwise significance at 10 years post-HTx, with overall significance of p=0.000. At 5 years post-HTx, only 60-69 vs ≥70 did not have pairwise significance in survival. Conclusion: Contrary to prior studies, results indicate a statistically significant difference in survival the older and younger cohorts. This difference is especially prominent at the 10 th year post-transplant, but can be seen even at the 5 th year.

2020 ◽  
María Pipa-Muniz ◽  
Susana Sanmartino ◽  
Alicia Mesa ◽  
Carmen Alvarez-Navascués ◽  
Maria Luisa González-Diéguez ◽  

Abstract Background: A single-centre cohort study was performed to identify the independent factors associated withthe overall survival (OS) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads (DEB-TACE). Methods : A total of 216 HCC patients who underwent DEB-TACE from October 2008 to October 2015 at a tertiary hospital were consecutively recruited. The analysis of prognostic factors associated with overall survival after DEB-TACE, stressing the role of post-TACE events, was performed. Results: The objective response (OR) rate (Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) criteria) to the first DEB-TACE (DEB-TACE-1) was 70.3%; the median OS from DEB-TACE-1 was 27 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 24-30). In the multivariate analysis, tumor size, AFP < 100 ng/mL and serum alkaline phosphatase were independent factors for survival following DEB-TACE-1. The most important clinical event associated with poor survival was the development of early ascites after DEB-TACE-1 (median OS, 17 months), which was closely related to the history of ascites, albumin and hemoglobin but not to tumour load or to response to therapy. Conclusions : Early ascites post-DEB-TACE is associated with the survival of patients despite adequate liver function and the use of a supra-selective technical approach. History of ascites, albumin and hemoglobin are major determinants of the development of early ascites post-DEB-TACE.

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