Predictors of Failure of Noninvasive Ventilation in Critically Ill Children
AbstractNoninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a common modality employed to treat acute respiratory failure. Most data guiding its use is extrapolated from adult studies. We sought to identify clinical predictors associated with failure of NIV, defined as requiring intubation. This single-center retrospective observational study included children admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between July 2014 and June 2016 treated with NIV, excluding postextubation. A total of 148 patients was included. Twenty-seven (18%) failed NIV. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to age, gender, comorbidities, or etiology of acute respiratory failure. Those that failed had higher admission pediatric risk of mortality (p = 0.01) and pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (p = 0.002) scores and higher fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2; p = 0.009) at NIV initiation. Failure was associated with lack of improvement in tachypnea. At 6 hours of NIV, the failure group had worsening tachypnea with a median increase in respiratory rate of 8%, while the success group had a median reduction of 18% (p = 0.06). Multivariable Cox's proportional hazard models revealed FiO2 at initiation and worsening respiratory rate at 1- and 6-hour significant risks for failure of NIV. Failure was associated with a significantly longer PICU length of stay (success [2.8 days interquartile range (IQR): 1.7, 5.5] vs. failure [10.6 days IQR: 5.6, 13.2], p < 0.001). NIV can be successfully employed to treat acute respiratory failure in pediatric patients. There should be heightened concern for NIV failure in hypoxemic patients whose tachypnea is unresponsive to NIV. A trend toward improvement should be closely monitored.