This study was aimed to determine the effect of urea in maturation medium on in vitro oocyte maturation rate. The medium used was TCM-199 added with Hepes, NaHCO3, Kanamycin 0.15 IU/mL, PMSG, 0.15 IU/mL hCG, and 10% FBS. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) of cows derived from follicle aspiration were divided into three groups. In control group (P0), the COCs were matured in vitro in a maturation medium without urea addition, meanwhile in the P1 and P2 groups, the medium was added with urea 20 and 40 mg/dL, respectively. Each petri dish contained three drops of maturation medium (300 µl/drops) according to the groups. Microdrops were coated with mineral oil and then incubated in a 5% CO2 incubator, at 39 ˚C with maximum humidity. Aceto-orcein staining was conducted to evaluate the maturation of oocytes based on the achievement of metaphase II phase that is indicated by the presence of metaphase plate and/or first polar body. The result showed that the oocyte maturation rates of P0, P1, and P2 were 51.25, 52.43 (p >0.05), and 46.88 % (p <0.05) respectively. It could be concluded that the presence of urea at 40 mg/dL in maturation medium reduced the percentage of bovine oocyte maturation in vitro.
Background and Aim: Bligon goat is a crossbreed between Etawah and Kacang goat. This crossbreed goat is mostly reared by small farmers. In vitro maturation allows female goat (does) contributes toward reproduction despite the fact that the animal has been slaughtered. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro maturation rate of Bligon goat oocytes supplemented with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and their ability for further embryonic development after in vitro fertilization.
Materials and Methods: Experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Reproduction, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, using Bligon goat ovaries obtained from local slaughterhouse around Yogyakarta. One thousand five hundred cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured for 24 h in tissue culture medium 199 supplemented with 50 IU/L FSH or without FSH (control). First, matured oocytes were evaluated its morphology based on the expansion of cumulus cells and PB1 extrusion. Next, 600 oocytes were then stained with 1% aceto-orcein to examine maturation based on changes in the configuration of chromosomes and nuclear membrane breakdown. Oocytes were considered mature when they reached metaphase II. To prove the ability of mature oocytes to develop into embryos, 900 oocytes were processed for fertilization in vitro. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance.
Results: The results indicated that FSH supplementation significantly increased oocyte maturation rate (65.21±7.26 vs. 43.25±6.23%) as indicated by extrusion of PB1 and homologous chromosome pairing and lined in the equator. The rate of degeneration was lower in the FSH-supplemented medium (3.21±0.25 vs. 10.17±3.15%). The blastocyst stage of oocyte developed embryos was reached by 12.43±2.15% and 22.28±4.86% of the control and treatment groups, respectively.
Conclusion: FSH supplementation significantly improves oocyte maturation and yields mature oocytes for future embryo development in vitro.
ABSTRACT We aimed to assess the effects of melatonin in the in vitro production of bovine embryos. Our experiment was conducted at the Laboratório de Reprodução Animal of the Universidade Estadual do Maranhão. The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were distributed among treatments at concentrations of 0, 10-1, 10-3 and 10-5 µMol/L melatonin. Our experiment was further divided into two: the first was to assess the effect of different concentrations of melatonin (treatments) on the maturation rate of COCs, and the second was to assess the effects of melatonin treatments on the in vitro production of bovine embryos. The results from the first experiment demonstrated no significant difference between the in vitro maturation rate of the cultivated COCs in treatments with melatonin. In the second experiment, however, melatonin treatments yielded statistically higher cleavage, morula and blastocyst rates in the 10-5 µM group (52.9%, 52.9%, and 35.3%, respectively), and lower rates in the 10-1 µM group (19.5%, 19.5% and 7.8%, respectively), compared to the others. The control group (no melatonin) and the 10-3 µM group showed similar results. We concluded that supplementation of melatonin in the in vitro maturation medium resulted in no improvement in the oocyte maturation rate, but in the in vitro production of embryos at different concentrations, the 10-5 µM group displayed better results, but with no improvement in the variables (P < 0.05).
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major ingredient of catechin polyphenols, and a strong antioxidant compound. Huang et al. (2018 Asian-australas. J. Anim. Sci.) reported that adding 50μM EGCG can improve the bovine oocyte maturation rate. In this research, we investigated the effect of EGCG supplementation on different periods in bovine IVF. Cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) collected from ovaries of slaughtered cows were cultured in maturation medium (20 to 30 oocytes per 100-µL droplet), which consisted of TCM-199 with Earle’s salts and 25mM HEPES supplemented with 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1µg mL−1 oestradiol, 0.02mg mL−1 FSH, and antibiotics at 38.5°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air for 24h (in vitro maturation, IVM). After IVM, COC were fertilized in the fertilization medium (modified Brackett-Oliphant media supplemented with 10 µgmL−1 heparin, 10mM caffeine, and 3mg mL−1 BSA) for 6h using semen of one bull at final sperm concentration of 1×107 mL−1 (IVF). After IVF, COC were denuded and cultured in culture medium [CR1aa supplemented with 10% (vol/vol) FBS and antibiotics] at 38.5°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% O2, 5% CO2, and 90%N2 for 8 days (in vitro culture, IVC). The EGCG was supplemented at 10, 25, 50, and 100M in IVM medium; 25 and 50 µM in IVF medium; and 50 and 100 µM in IVC medium. After 24h in IVM medium, COC were denuded by pipetting, fixed in 3:1 ethanol:acetic acid for 24h and then checked for nuclear and polar body by using aceto-orcein stain. After 18h in IVF, the pronucleus in zygote was fixed in 3:1 ethanol:acetic acid for 24h and checked by aceto-orcein staining. Embryo development was evaluated by counting the total number of embryos that had reached compacted morula by 6 to 8 days after IVF. Significant differences were analysed by chi-squared test and residual analysis. A P-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. When EGCG was added to IVM, there was no significant difference of oocyte maturation rate between all concentrations (0v. 10v. 25v. 50v. 100 μM: 73.9% v. 56.7% v. 76.7% v. 72.7% v. 63.5%). When EGCG was added to IVF, there was no significant difference of fertilized rate (0v. 25v. 50 μM: 59.4% v. 73.7% v. 64.9%). When EGCG was added to IVC, there was no significant difference in development rate (0v. 50v. 100 μM: 26.2% v. 15.7% v. 22.0%). In this research, EGCG addition did not affect bovine in vitro fertilization.
The effect of conditioned medium (CM) or microvesicles (MVs), secreted by multicellular spheroids of oviductal cells, and the involvement of some microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated in canine oocyte maturation. To generate CM, spheroids were cultured for 3 days. MVs were obtained by ultracentrifugation of CM at 100,000 gand measured for size and concentration by NanoSight instrument. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured at 38.5°C with 5% CO2and 5% of O2in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) in biphasic systems: for 24 h, with 5.0 μg/mL of LH and for other 48 h with 10% oestrous bitch serum. SOF was used as control (CTR) or supplemented with 10% CM or 25–50–75–100–150 × 106 MVs/mL labeled with PKH-26. Results show that multicellular aggregates secreted shedding vesicles. By fluorescence microscopy, the incorporation of labeled MVs was visible only at 72 h in oocyte cytoplasm. These MVs had a positive effect (P < 0.05) on maturation rate (MII) at the concentration of 75 and 100 × 106 MVs/mL compared to CM and CTR (20.34% and 21.82% vs 9.09% and 8.66% respectively). The concentration of 150 × 106 MVs/mL provided only 9.26% of MII. The expression of three specific miRNAs (miR-30b, miR-375 and miR-503) was studied. The lower rate of MII with the higher concentration of MVs is possibly due to the high level of miR-375. In conclusion, the oviductal MVs could be involved in cellular trafficking during oocyte maturation and their possible usein vitrocould facilitate the exploitment of canine reproductive biotechnologies.
The MPF and MAPK genes play crucial roles during oocyte maturation processes. However, the pattern of MPF and MAPK gene expression induced by melatonin (MT) and its correlation to oocyte maturation quality during the process of porcine oocyte maturation in vitro remains unexplored. To unravel it, in this study, we cultured the porcine oocytes in maturation medium supplemented with 0, 10−6, 10−9, and 10−12 mol/L melatonin. Later, we analyzed the MPF and MAPK gene expression levels by RT-PCR and determined the maturation index (survival and maturation rate of oocytes). The GSH content in the single oocyte, and cytoplasmic mitochondrial maturation distribution after porcine oocyte maturation in vitro was also evaluated. We also assessed the effects of these changes on parthenogenetic embryonic developmental potential. The oocytes cultured with 10−9mol/L melatonin concentration showed higher oocyte maturation rate, and MPF and MAPK genes expression levels along with better mitochondrial distribution than the 0, 10−6, and 10−12 mol/L melatonin concentrations (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in the survival rates when the oocytes were cultured with different melatonin concentrations. The expression of the MPF gene in the oocytes cultured with 10−6 mol/L melatonin was higher than with 10−12 and 0 mol/L melatonin, and the expression of the MAPK gene in 10−6 and 10−12 group was higher than the control (p < 0.05). As far as the embryonic developmental potential is concerned, the cleavage and blastocyst rate of oocytes cultured with 10−6 and 10−9 mol/L melatonin was significantly higher than the 10−12 mol/L melatonin and control. In conclusion, 10−9–10−6 mol/L melatonin significantly induced the MPF and MAPK gene expression; besides, it could also be correlated with GSH content of single oocyte, mitochondrial maturation distribution, and the first polar body expulsion. These changes were also found to be associated with parthenogenetic embryo developmental potential in vitro.
The in vitro production of bovine embryos has dramatically increased in recent years, and with it the demand of stable media with a long shelf-life. In this experiment we evaluated the impact of the freeze-dried in vitro maturation (IVM) medium (Mdry) on in vitro oocyte maturation. We compared the standard IVM and the Mdry media. Medium M199 was used as base for the IVM medium. The percentage of metaphase II oocytes and embryo production were evaluated. Media solutions (10 mL) were aliquoted into 50-mL conical tubes and lyophilized to form a powder concentrate using a Genesis freeze-dryer (VirTis, Gardener, NY, USA). Lyophilization consisted of a constant cooling from 20°C to –10°C at a constant rate of 1°C/min with a 2-h hold at –10°C before sublimation at 0°C. The Mdry medium was held at –80°C for 4 months (only serum and hormones were added before the incubation). When the IVM medium was rehydrated, the pH were adjusted to 7.4. The percentage of mature oocytes was evaluated after 24 h of maturation. The oocytes were stained with Hoechst 33342, and only oocytes with metaphase and a polar body were evaluated as matured. Abattoir-derived Holstein oocytes (n = 540) were in vitro matured (25–30/well in 400 µL) and fertilized with sexed semen, according to standard procedures (Rubessa et al. 2011 Theriogenology 76, 1347-1355). The oocytes were split for analysis (432 were used for IVP and 108 for maturation rate) over 6 replicates. Twenty hours after IVF, presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium at 39°C with 5% CO2, 7% O2, and 88% N2. On Day 7, embryo yields were assessed. All recorded parameters were subjected to a Student’s t-test. The parameters compared were maturation rate, cleavage rate, blastocyst rate and the percentage of embryos cleaved. The α level was set at 0.05. All data were expressed as quadratic means and mean standard deviations. The results showed no differences between the 2 groups (75.9% v. 74.1%) (t = 0.37; SD = 12.69; P = 0.36; df = 5) when we compared the nuclear maturation; however, when we evaluated embryo production, we found the Mdry treatment had a higher cleavage percentage (t = 2.39; SD = 14.81; P = 0.02; df = 5) and total embryos produced (t = 2.49; SD = 5.6; P = 0.02; df = 5) compared with the control (Table 1.). These results showed that lyophilization can be a valid method to increase the shelf life of IVP media. More replicates must be done in order to understand why the freeze-dried media produced more embryos.
Table 1.Mean (SD in parentheses) percentage cleavage and blastocysts
The development of in vitro culture systems that result to preantral follicles growth and increasing of developmental competency of oocytes obtained from follicles has an important role in fertility preservation and assisted reproductive techniques. In this research, we evaluated the effect of repaglinide on in vitro growth and maturation of preantral follicles. Preantral follicles were isolated from 12-14 day-old female NMRI mice ovaries and cultured for 12 days cultured in α-MEM (Control), α-MEM supplemented with 1µM of repaglinide. Follicles examined for development on 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 days of culture. At the end of culture period after HCG administration in vitro oocyte maturation was assessed. Results showed that in vitro follicle growth, survival, density of granulosa cells and steroidogenic activity were higher than the control group (p less than 0.05). In vitro maturation rate in oocytes derived from follicles in the treatment group was higher than control group (p less than 0.05). Therefore the supplementation of the culture medium with repaglinide can improve the ovarian follicle survival, growth and subsequently in vitro oocyte maturation.