Personal indices in the verbal system of the Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialect of Zakho

2019 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 189-208
Ariel Gutman

Abstract The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Zakho is a highly endangered dialect of North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic which was spoken by the Jews of Zakho (northern-Iraq) up to the 1950s, when virtually all of them left Iraq for Israel. Thanks to documentation efforts which started in the ’40s at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, as well as the interest of native speakers, we possess a rich textual documentation of this dialect today (Cohen, 2012; Y. Sabar, 2002; Avinery, 1988). These resources, together with recently conducted fieldwork, are used in order to analyze the linguistic status of the verbal personal indices in this dialect, following the concepts presented by Bresnan & Mchombo (1987) as well as Corbett (2003). For each person marker, its status as a pronominal affix or as an agreement marker is established. The synchronic situation is compared with the known historic situation in older strata of Aramaic, such as Classical Syriac. The resulting analysis shows that the same apparent person marker may behave differently in different syntactic environments. Another conclusion is that there is no clear-cut dichotomy between pronominal affixes and agreement markers, as transitional cases exist.

1991 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 24-41 ◽  
Michael S. Mayer

Liberal historians have traditionally played down or neglected the achievements of the Eisenhower administration in the area of civil rights. At the same time, they have overstated the contributions of liberal Democrats and understated the role congressional Democrats played in obstructing civil rights in the 1950s. The liberal bias of most historians has led to a distorted picture of the political dynamics affecting the struggle for black equality. The fact is that the Democrats, as a party, were not so liberal in the 1950s as they have often been portrayed, and the Republican party was not so conservative. The positions of the parties in fact were not so clear-cut as they became in the next decade. Neither party forcefully and openly advocated full equality for blacks; both reflected the dominant racism of white society. Granting that, however, the Eisenhower administration was not the obstructionist barrier to civil rights that historians have often portrayed.

2019 ◽  
Vol 101 (3) ◽  
pp. 42-47
Thomas R. Guskey

Opinions about whether comments, grades, or both are the most effective forms of feedback vary widely among teachers, school leaders, and even grading and assessment consultants. Thomas Guskey maintains that the truth is not as clear-cut as some suggest. He reviews the research, going back to the 1950s, to better understand when certain types of feedback are most useful. He concludes that grades and comments are not, in and of themselves, beneficial to student learning. Effective feedback, whether in the form of grades or comments, must give students a sense of where they are and what they need to do to improve.

2020 ◽  
Vol 46 (1) ◽  
pp. 62-78
Alessio Ponzio

This article, showing how ubiquitous male youth prostitution was in 1950s Italy, exposes the pederastic and (homo)sexual vivacity of this decade. Moreover, this article also suggests that even if police, the media, and medical institutions were trying to crystallize a rigid chasm between homo- and heterosexuality, there were still forces in Italian society that resisted such strict categorization. The young hustlers described by contemporary observers bear witness to the sexual flexibility of the 1950s in Italy. These youths inhabited queer spaces lacking a clear-cut hetero–homo divide, spaces where “modern” sexological categories and identities had not yet entered. Prior to the mass circulation of rigid sexual labels, it was still possible for many Italian boys, youths, and young men to dwell in liminal queer spaces. The exchange of money purified their acts, guaranteed their maleness, and effaced potential stigmatization.

10.29007/r819 ◽  
2018 ◽  
Mario Crespo Miguel ◽  
Marta Sanchez-Saus Laserna

Traditionally, texts provided by machine translation have been evaluated with a binary criterion: right or wrong. However, in certain cases it is difficult to provide a clear-cut division between fully acceptable and fully unacceptable texts. In this paper we have selected group of different bilingual, human-translated English-to-Spanish pairs of sentences from parallel corpora (Linguee) and a group of machine translated texts with problematic linguistic phenomena in English-to-Spanish translation: polysemy, semantic equivalents, passive, anaphora, etc. We presented the translations to a group of native speakers that evaluated them in different levels of acceptability. Results show the degree of applicability of this approach.

Pali Tchaa ◽  
Amizou Maléki Espoir

La problématique de l’énonciation, déjà abordée dans les travaux de Kassan (1996) en regard du système verbal trouve, dans la présente étude, un regain d’intérêt. Il s’est agi de focaliser l’analyse sur les types structurels d’énoncés pour en dégager les propriétés. L’ancrage théorique se situe entre Culioli (1978) qui conçoit l’énonciation à l’aune de l’assignation de la valeur référentielle du sujet de la relation prédicative et Cervoni (1992) dans la sous-catégorisation en « modalité » assertive, impérative, interrogative de l’énoncé. Compte a été également tenu des acquis descriptifs de Kassan (1996) et Lébikaza (1999). Les données analysées sont recueillies au cours de différents travaux de terrains auprès des locuteurs natifs du kabiyè à Kara. Il résulte de l’étude que l’énoncé est construit autour d’un contexte de communication, élément de base de son interprétation sémantique. Au-delà, sa structure est diversifiée. Verbal ou non verbal, l’énoncé kabiyè peut se réduire à un constituant. Par contre, quelle que soit son étendue, il peut admettre des expansions selon les besoins de communication des interlocuteurs. The topic of enunciation, already addressed by Kassan (1996) in relation to the verbal system, finds a renewed interest in the present study. The aim was to focus the analysis on the structural types of statements in order to identify their properties. Theoretical grounding ps between Culioli (1978), who conceives the enunciation on the basis of the assignment of the referential value of the predicative relationship, and Cervoni (1992) in the modality subcategorization in assertive, imperative and interrogative statements. Account was also taken of descriptive results of Kassan (1996) and Lébikaza (1999). The analyzed data are collected during various fieldworks in Kara with native speakers of Kabiyè. The study shows that the statement is built around a communication context, the basic element of its semantic interpretation. Beyond that, its structure is diversified. Verbal or non-verbal, the Kabiyè utterance can be reduced to a constituent. On the other hand, whatever its extent, it can admit expansions according to the communication needs of the interlocutors. <p> </p><p><strong> Article visualizations:</strong></p><p><img src="/-counters-/edu_01/0720/a.php" alt="Hit counter" /></p>

Africa ◽  
1995 ◽  
Vol 65 (4) ◽  
pp. 525-544 ◽  
Mario I. Aguilar

AbstractThe Boorana of the Waso area of north-eastern Kenya settled there in the 1930s. Upon the settling of colonial administrative boundaries in 1934 they became isolated from the rest of the Boorana in northern Kenya and Ethiopia. Thereafter a process of ‘somalisation’ took place through which they replaced their Oromo ritual moments with Islamic practices. By the 1950s most of the Waso Boorana had converted to Islam, and since then have been considered Muslims by the rest of Kenya. Nevertheless recent research has shown that there has been a revival of traditional religious practices among them. The article divides the history of the Waso Boorana into two periods: (1) from their settlement in the Waso area to the events leading to Kenya's independence (1932–62) and (2) from Kenya's independence to the 1990s (1963–92). It is in this second period in their history that the Waso Boorana began a process of religious diversification. Traditional religious practices revived in their settlements and distrust emerged of Islam. The article argues that there has been a reconversion to traditional practices, based on a local principle, the Waso Boorana division of herds.

2018 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 37 ◽  
Blasius Achiri-Taboh

Although English spelling has been of significant interest to scholars since the 1950s, it has remained a major problem even to native speakers. One peculiar problem with it is the spelling variation of the noun formation suffix often represented in discourse as “shun,” mainly between -tion and -sion. Current textbooks of English grammar have generally not discussed rules of its spelling with either form, even though they do many others. However, following online resources, conflicting on how to spell it are in current debate, with two main schools of thought that each fall in line with one of two approaches that can be called the “word-based model” and the “base-word model.” In Achiri-Taboh (2018), I have shown that, in writing down words that end with “shun,” the base-word model is to be preferred, presenting argument for a synchronic rule following the base-word model with seven conditions to warrant the use of -sion as opposed to -tion, albeit with exceptions. Following current debates and a test of Anglophone Cameroonian students for their spelling preferences, the present study establishes the problem as global and compelling enough, especially for Non-Native users and learners of English, to warrant an address in grammar textbooks by means of available recourses like the recent base-word-based rule. The study also demonstrates that the prevalence of the problem actually stems from the lack of readily available spelling rules in grammar textbooks, and that there is a need for further research on spelling rules in English.

Africa ◽  
1974 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 71-81
Leland Donald

Opening ParagraphThe Yalunka of north-eastern Sierra Leone are predominantly Muslim. Their religion seems to be a straightforward variant of contemporary West African Islam. They have been exposed to Islam for several centuries and although they had powerful Muslim neighbours during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, for most of this period they resisted conversion and remained pagan (Laing, 1825; Donald, 1968) until 1882, when they were conquered by one of the armies of Samory and forcibly converted. After the establishment of British and French control over their area in the 1890s many Yalunka reverted to paganism, but Islam remained viable and the number of adherents increased steadily. By the 1950s nearly all Yalunka in Sierra Leone were at least nominal Muslims.

Jean-Marc Leveratto ◽  
Fabrice Montebello

This article shows the heuristic value of a film consumption study that combines oral archives and fieldwork with written sources. Oral archives on film consumption provided by a local film market of Longwy, an industrial town of north-eastern France, during the 1950s allow the researcher to reconstruct the audience’s collective experience of the films released on this market. Combined with a systematic study of local releases and their box office, they give us access to the artistic expertise of local filmgoers in the past and motivate us to challenge the conventional interpretation of film consumption as the ostensibly predictable expression of a social taste.

2000 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 129-143 ◽  
Elaina M. Frieda ◽  
Amanda C. Walley ◽  
James E. Flege ◽  
Michael E. Sloane

This study investigated the link between the perception and production of the English vowel /i/ by adult native speakers of English. Participants first produced the vowel /i/ using normal (citation) and careful (hyperarticulated) speech, then completed a method of adjustment task in which they selected their ideal exemplar of /i/. In this perceptual task, 24 of 35 participants had a prototype; the remaining 11 did not, but were retained for comparison. In keeping with the hyperspace effect (K. Johnson, E. Flemming, & R. Wright, 1993), all participants selected perceptual stimuli with F1 and F2 values that were more extreme (i.e., higher and further forward in the vowel space) than those of their normal, citation productions. An analysis of front-back and high-low qualities for the perceptual and production data in Euclidian space revealed that hyperarticulated speech was closer to the perceptual data than citation speech was, but only for participants with relatively clear-cut prototypes. The basis for such individual variation in perception-production links is discussed.

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