Protein-degradation products and bacterial enzyme activities in faeces of breast-fed and formula-fed infants

2003 ◽  
Vol 89 (4) ◽  
pp. 509-515 ◽  
Patricia M. Heavey ◽  
Shirley-Anne H. Savage ◽  
Alison Parrett ◽  
Cinzia Cecchini ◽  
Christine A. Edwards ◽  

The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of age and diet (breast milk, formula milk and weaning diet) on metabolic activities in faecal samples from infants aged 1 week to 1 year, and to compare these findings with activities found in samples from adults. Such activities can provide valuable information on functional changes in the microbiota that may have significance for the health of the host. Fresh faecal samples were collected from forty-four breast-fed infants (twenty-four males, twenty females) and thirteen formula-fed infants (three males, ten females) throughout the first year of life. The samples were analysed for protein-breakdown products, including the faecal concentrations of NH3, phenol and p-cresol, and faecal bacterial enzyme activities. There was wide individual variation in all variables measured; however, the values in infants were substantially lower then those found in adults. In pre-weaned infants, faecal NH3 concentration and β-glucuronidase activity were the only endpoints that were significantly different in breast-fed and formula-fed infants (P<0·001 and P<0·05 respectively). This was not apparent after weaning. There was a significant difference between the breast-fed and formula-fed weaned groups and their pre-weaned counterparts only for NH3 (P<0·05). β-Glucuronidase activity and phenol concentration were significantly (P<0·01) greater in weaned breast-fed infants compared with pre-weaned breast-fed infants. No differences were observed between pre-weaned and weaned formula-fed infants for any of the variables except for NH3 concentration. It can be concluded from the present study that there are significant differences in two faecal characteristics between breast- and formula-fed infants and that changes occur as the infants grow older and are weaned onto solid foods.

Med Phoenix ◽  
2017 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 18-23
Arun Kumar Singh ◽  
Raj Kumar Singh ◽  
Rajesh Prasad Shah ◽  
Equbal Ahmad ◽  
Akhtar Alam Ansari ◽  

Background: Breast milk and colostrums are the first feeding sources for infant, providing nutrients, growth factors and immunological components. So we conducted this study to compare the growth pattern of neonates on breast feed versus formula feed.Methods: This study was done in the Department of Pediatrics, King Edward Medical University, Mayo Hospital, Lahore from 2015 July to 2016 July as cross sectional study. The Non Probability purposive sampling technique was used. Information on type of feeding was obtained from mothers. Subsequently neonates were divided in two groups on the basis of type of feeding (i.e. breast feeding or formula feeding).Results: In this study the mean age of the patients was 16.56±6.26 days and the mean gestational age of the patients was 8.52±0.97 months. The male to female ratio of the patients was 1.3:1. Statistically there was significant difference found between the weight gain in study groups at 10th, 14th week and 4th month follow up i.e. p-value<0.05.Conclusion: The prevalence of breastfeeding in infants in our study was 52.3%. Our results showed that the breast fed infants had better weight gain compared to formula fed infants; however there was no statistically significant difference in gain in length between breast fed and formula fed infants.Med Phoenix Vol.2(1) July 2017, 18-23

2020 ◽  
Lu Ren ◽  
Lan-Lan Geng ◽  
hong-li Wang ◽  
si-tang Gong ◽  
Jing Xie ◽  

Abstract 1) Background: To understand the clinical features and outcome of fecal retention in infancy(FRI), so as to guide the focus and intervention methods of such infants.2) Methods: The electronic medical record system(EMRS)was used to collect and screen out cases diagnosed as fecal retention from June 2018 to June 2019 in outpatient clinic of our hospital. The age, feeding method, frequency and traits of stool, and accompanying symptoms were recorded. The changes of clinical symptoms, medical examinations and drug treatment by the age of 1 year were investigated by means of electronic medical record review and telephone follow-up.3) Results: A total of 286 infants were enrolled, 7 were lost to follow-up, and 279 were effectively followed up. There were 157 males and 129 females, with an age of 3.6 ± 1.5 months. The average stool frequency was 5.9 ± 1.8 days. 63.3% of the infants were breast-fed, 16.8% were formula-fed, and the rest were mixed-fed,all without supplementary food. 9.1% of the infants showed corresponding gastrointestinal symptoms, such as bloating, increased crying, decreased milk intake, and laborious defecation. 87.1% of the infants received medical treatment, including glycerin enema, probiotics, and Chinese herbal preparations, with an effective treatment rate of 7.8%. 38.7% of infants have undergone medical examination, including abdominal ultrasound, X-ray film / barium enema, blood test, etc, the positive rate is 14.8%. The duration of fecal retention in 53% of infants was ≤ 2 months, 22.6% between 2–3 months, 24.4% ≥ 3 months, with an average of 2.6 ± 1.1 months. At the age of followed up to 1 year, 16.8% of infants developed functional constipation(FC). Compared with other infants with normal defecation, there was no significant difference in age, frequency of stool, the proportion of breast milk feeding and receiving treatment, and there was a significant difference in the duration of fecal retention. The duration of FC group was longer than normal defecation group by which was 3.49 ± 0.83 months.4) Conclusions: Infants with fecal retention are more likely to develop FC at age 1 than general population, and may be positively related to the duration of fecal retention.

2018 ◽  
Vol 5 (5) ◽  
pp. 1933
Shyamali Datta ◽  
Bijan Kumar Datta ◽  
Avirupa Kansha Banik ◽  
Nilanjan Datta

Background: In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Breastfeeding provides unsurpassed natural nutrition to the newborn and infant. Study was done to know the effects of breast milk feeding versus formula feeding in early infancy on the development of serum IgA, IgM and IgG.Methods: The present study investigated 100 cases of failure of breast feeding. The cases included both complete and partial failure. Values of immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgM and IgG) in the serum of eleven breast fed and eleven artificially fed infants (all aged one month) were determined using Tripartigen plates.Results: Mean level of IgA in artificially fed infants was 20.72±3.82µg/100 ml. The diameter of precipitin ring using sample number 7 was 3.9 mm. The mean level of IgA in breast fed infants was 25.94±3.89 µg/100 ml.  The mean level of IgM in artificially fed infants was 31.690±3.504 µg/100 ml. The mean level of IgM in breast fed infants was 36.81±5.13 µg/100 ml. The mean level of IgG in artificially fed infants was 480.25±52.23 µg /100 ml. The mean level of IgG in breast fed infants was 517.59±56.72 µg /100 ml.Conclusions: It is evident from the results of immunoglobulin estimation (Ig A, Ig M and IgG) in infants with artificial milk and in infants with breast milk (vide table 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10) that though the mean serum levels (Ig A, Ig M and IgG) in breast fed infants were slightly higher than that of artificially fed infants. There was no statistically significant difference in the serum immunoglobulin levels between these two groups.

2006 ◽  
Vol 9 (5) ◽  
pp. 563-569 ◽  
J Orne-Gliemann ◽  
T Mukotekwa ◽  
A Miller ◽  
F Perez ◽  
M Glenshaw ◽  

AbstractObjectiveTo describe the infant feeding practices and attitudes of women who used prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services in rural Zimbabwe.DesignA cross-sectional study including structured interviews and focus group discussions was conducted between June 2003 and February 2004.SettingThe study took place in Murambinda Mission Hospital (Buhera District, Manicaland Province), the first site offering PMTCT services in rural Zimbabwe.SubjectsThe interviews targeted HIV-infected and HIV-negative women who received prenatal HIV counselling and testing and minimal infant feeding counselling, and who delivered between 15 August 2001 and 15 February 2003. The focus groups were conducted among young and elderly men and women.ResultsOverall, 71 HIV-infected and 93 HIV-negative mothers were interviewed in clinics or at home. Most infants (97%) had ever been breast-fed. HIV-negative mothers introduced fluids/foods other than breast milk significantly sooner than HIV-infected mothers (median 4.0 vs. 6.0 months, P = 0.005). Infants born to HIV-negative mothers were weaned significantly later than HIV-exposed infants (median 19.0 vs. 6.0 months, P = 10−5). More than 90% of mothers reported that breast-feeding their infant was a personal decision, a third of whom also mentioned having taken into account health workers' messages.ConclusionThe HIV-infected mothers interviewed were gradually implementing infant feeding practices recommended in the context of HIV. Increased infant feeding support capacity in resource-limited rural populations is required, i.e. training of counselling staff, decentralised follow-up and weaning support.

1982 ◽  
Vol 93 (1) ◽  
pp. 144-154 ◽  
L Marzella ◽  
J Ahlberg ◽  
H Glaumann

The induction of autophagy caused by vinblastine (VBL) has been found to be concomitant with a stimulation of proteolysis in a mitochondrial-lysosomal (ML) fraction from the rat liver (Marzella and Glaumann, 1980, Lab. Invest., 42: 8-17. Marzella and Glaumann, 1980, Lab. Invest., 42:18-27). In this fraction the enhanced proteolysis is associated with a threefold increase in the relative fractional volume of autophagic vacuoles (AVs). In an attempt to isolate the AVs, we subfractionated the ML suspension at different intervals after the induction of autophagy by VBL by centrifugation on a discontinuous Metrizamide gradient ranging from 50% to 15%. The material banding at the 24 to 20% and the 20 to 15% interphases was collected. Morphological analysis reveals that 3 h after induction of autophagy these fractions consist predominantly (approximately 90%) of intact autophagic vacuoles. These autophagic vacuoles contain cytosol, mitochondria, portions of endoplasmic reticulum, and occasional very low density lipoprotein, particles either free or in Golgi apparatus derivatives, in particular secretory granules. The sequestered materials show ultrastructural signs of ongoing degradation. In addition to containing typical autophagic vacuoles, the isolated fractions consist of lysosomes lacking morphologically recognizable cellular components. Contamination from nonlysosomal material is only a few percent as judged from morphometric analysis. Typical lysosomal "marker" enzymes are enriched 15-fold, whereas the proteolytic activity is enriched 10- to 20-fold in the isolated AV fraction as compared to the homogenate. Initially, the yield of nonlysosomal mitochondrial and microsomal enzyme activities increases in parallel with the induction of autophagy but, later on, decreases with advanced degradation of the sequestered cell organelles. Therefore, in the case of AVs the presence of nonlysosomal marker enzymes cannot be used for calculation of fraction purity, since newly sequestered organelles are enzymatically active. Isolated autophagic vacuoles show proteolytic activity when incubated in vitro. The comparatively high phospholipid/protein ratio (0.5) of the AV fraction suggests that phospholipids are degraded more slow than proteins. Is it concluded that AVs can be isolated into a pure fraction and are the subcellular site of enhanced protein degradation in the rat liver after induction of autophagy.

2015 ◽  
Vol 113 (9) ◽  
pp. 1339-1344 ◽  
Yvan Vandenplas ◽  
Irina Zakharova ◽  
Yulia Dmitrieva

The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota differs between breast-fed and classic infant formula-fed infants. Breast milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides (OS) and may also contain some probiotics, but scientific societies do not recommend the addition of prebiotic OS or probiotics to standard infant formula. Nevertheless, many infant formula companies often add one or the other or both. Different types of prebiotic OS are used in infant formula, including galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose and mixtures of these OS, but none adds human milk OS. There is evidence that the addition of prebiotics to infant formula brings the GI microbiota of formula-fed infants closer to that of breast-fed infants. Prebiotics change gut metabolic activity (by decreasing stool pH and increasing SCFA), have a bifidogenic effect and bring stool consistency and defecation frequency closer to those of breast-fed infants. Although there is only limited evidence that these changes in GI microbiota induce a significant clinical benefit for the immune system, interesting positive trends have been observed in some markers. Additionally, adverse effects are extremely seldom. Prebiotics are added to infant formula because breast milk contains human milk OS. Because most studies suggest a trend of beneficial effects and because these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to the golden standard of breast milk.

2018 ◽  
Vol 119 (9) ◽  
pp. 1012-1018 ◽  
Pantea Nazeri ◽  
Hosein Dalili ◽  
Yadollah Mehrabi ◽  
Mehdi Hedayati ◽  
Parvin Mirmiran ◽  

AbstractDespite substantial progress in the global elimination of iodine deficiency, lactating mothers and their infants remain susceptible to insufficient iodine intake. This cross-sectional study was conducted to compare iodine statuses of breast-fed and formula-fed infants and their mothers at four randomly selected health care centres in Tehran. Healthy infants <3 months old and their mothers were randomly selected for inclusion in this study. Iodine was measured in urine and breast milk samples from each infant and mother as well as commercially available infant formula. The study included 124 postpartum mothers (29·2 (sd 4·9) years old) and their infants (2·0 (sd 0·23) months old). The iodine concentrations were 50–184 µg/l for infant formula, compared with a median breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) of 100 µg/l in the exclusive breast-feeding group and 122 µg/l in the partial formula feeding group. The median values for urinary iodine concentration in the exclusive breast-feeding group were 183 µg/l (interquartile range (IQR) 76–285) for infants and 78 µg/l (IQR 42–145) for mothers, compared with 140 µg/l (IQR 68–290) for infants and 87 µg/l (IQR 44–159) for mothers in the formula feeding group. These differences were not statistically significant. After adjustment for BMIC, ANCOVA revealed that feeding type (exclusive breast-feeding v. partial formula feeding) did not significantly affect the infants’ or mother’s urinary iodine levels. Thus, in an area with iodine sufficiency, there was no difference in the iodine statuses of infants and mothers according to their feeding type.

2007 ◽  
Vol 98 (S1) ◽  
pp. S74-S79 ◽  
Rosa María Espinosa ◽  
Martha Taméz ◽  
Pedro Prieto

Research on human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) began with the characterisation of their chemical structures and is now focused on the elucidation of their biological roles. Previously, biological effects could only be investigated with fractions or structures isolated from breast milk; consequently, clinical observations were limited to comparisons between outcomes from breast-fed infants and their formula-fed counterparts. In some cases, it was inferred that the observed differences were caused by the presence of HMO in breast milk. Presently, analytical techniques allow for the fast analysis of milk samples, thus providing insights on the inherent variability of specimens. In addition, methods for the synthesis of HMO have provided single structures in sufficient quantities to perform clinical studies with oligosaccharide-supplemented formulae. Furthermore, studies have been conducted with non-mammalian oligosaccharides with the purpose of assessing the suitability of these structures to functionally emulate HMO. Taken together, these developments justify summarising current knowledge on HMO to further discussions on efforts to emulate human milk in regard to its oligosaccharide content. The present account summarises published data and intends to provide an historical context and to illustrate the state of the field.

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