scholarly journals Student- and School-Level Predictors of Geography Achievement in the United States, 1994–2018

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Michael Solem ◽  
Phillip Vaughan ◽  
Corey Savage ◽  
Alessandro S. De Nadai
2021 ◽  
pp. 088626052199795
Yoonsun Han ◽  
Shinhye Lee ◽  
Eunah Cho ◽  
Juyoung Song ◽  
Jun Sung Hong

This cross-national research investigated nationally representative adolescents from South Korea and the United States, explored similarities and differences in latent profiles of bullying victimization between countries, and examined individual- and school-level variables that predict such latent profiles supported by the Social Disorganization Theory. The fourth-grade sample of the 2015 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study from South Korea ( N = 4,669) and the United States ( N = 10,029) was used to conduct a latent profile analysis based on eight items of the bullying victimization questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted using latent profiles as dependent variables. Independent variables include individual-level (material goods, school absence, academic interest, school belonging) and school-level (concentration of affluent families, school resources, the severity of delinquency, academic commitment) factors. More similarities existed than differences in the latent groups of bullying victimization between South Korea ( rare, low-moderate, verbal-relational-physical, and multi-risk) and the United States ( rare, low-moderate, verbal-relational, and multi-risk). Evidence for school-level variables as predictors of bullying victimization profiles was stronger for adolescents in the United States, with a concentration of affluent families and severity of delinquency being significant in four of the six models. For the South Korean sample, the severity of delinquency predicted bullying victimization in only one model. Examination of both individual- and school-level factors that predict unique bullying victimization experiences grounded in Social Disorganization Theory may be informative for addressing key areas of intervention—especially at the school-level context in which victimization primarily takes place and where anti-bullying intervention programs are often provided.

1981 ◽  
Vol 28 (6) ◽  
pp. 44-46
Gwen Shufelt

In the early history of education in the United States it was only the capable student who remained in school. At that time mathematics was considered a subject appropriate for the intellectually elite and the needs of a predominantly rural culture did not include extensive education for the majority. However, with the spread of the Jeffersonian ideal of democracy based on universal education, by the middle of the twentieth century, education for all was becoming a reality.

2018 ◽  
Vol 48 (2) ◽  
pp. 379-395 ◽  
Alyson L Lavigne

New teacher evaluation reform efforts in the United States hold principals accountable for improving teaching and learning. Yet little is known about how effective principals are at these instructional leadership tasks or how principals experience and adapt to the demands of teacher evaluation reform over time. In the current study, principals ( n = 78) in a Race to the Top state—Illinois—completed an online survey after the first and second year of implementation of a new teacher evaluation system. Principals felt significantly more confident in how to conduct formal classroom observations, placed more value on student achievement data, and placed less value on additional artifacts over time. Individual- and school-level factors were related to some aspects of principals’ adaptations over time. Implications are discussed.

2015 ◽  
Vol 64 (1) ◽  
pp. 53-65
Susan Poland ◽  
Linda Plevyak

The purpose of this research is to review the nature of four major science assessments administered in the United States: the ACT, PISA, TIMSS, and NAEP. Each assessment provides a very different view into US student performance in science. The TIMSS and PISA are international assessments of student performance and are often cited as evidence that US students are underperforming in comparison to their international peers. The NAEP is used to assess student knowledge of science across multiple age ranges in the United States. Finally, the ACT is administered to college-bound students who elect to take the exam. The underlying philosophies and basic structures of each assessment are explored, and comparisons and contrasts between the assessments are drawn. Historical student performance on each assessment is also analyzed. Analysis of these assessments suggests that US students struggle to apply scientific skills at the high school level, while US middle and elementary students understand scientific content knowledge well. Key words: student performance; science assessment; STEM education; standardized testing.

2016 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 61 ◽  
Yin Wu

<p class="apa">This study intends to compare and contrast student and school factors that are associated with students’ mathematics self-efficacy in the United States and China. Using hierarchical linear regressions to analyze the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 data, this study compares math self-efficacy, achievement, and variables such as math teacher support and socioeconomic status (SES) between 15-year-old students in the U.S. and in Shanghai, China. The findings suggest that on average, students from Shanghai showed higher math self-efficacy and better achievement than those of American students. However, at the student level, similar positive relationships between math teacher support and math self-efficacy and between SES and math self-efficacy were found in both locations. That is, in the U.S. and Shanghai, an increase in math teacher support predicts an increase in math self-efficacy, also higher SES is significantly associated with higher math self-efficacy. In addition, at the school level, the smaller difference in American students’ math self-efficacy between higher SES school and lower SES school indicates that the U.S. is more equitable between schools than Shanghai, China in terms of students’ math self-efficacy. Implications from this study indicate that improving teacher support in math class and narrowing the gap in students’ self-efficacy related to school-level SES is a significant issue for the U.S. and Shanghai, China respectively.</p>

2016 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 100-127 ◽  
Kristian L. Holden

This paper considers the effect of textbook funding on school-level test performance by using a quasi-experimental setting in the United States. I consider a lawsuit in California that provided a one-time payment of $96.90 per student for textbooks if schools fell below a threshold of academic performance. Exploiting this variation with a regression discontinuity (RD) design, I find that textbook funding has significant positive effects on school-level achievement in elementary schools and has a high benefit-per-dollar. In contrast to elementary schools, I find no effect in middle and high schools though these estimates are very imprecise. (JEL H75, I21, I22, I24, I28)

1965 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 553-554 ◽  
E. D. Lawson

Following a similar study in the United States, 210 Canadian school children were asked their flag preferences. Both the Union Jack and the Red Ensign were rated high, with a slight preference for the Union Jack. Appreciation of the U. S. flag, although initially high in the lower grades, dropped off somewhat at the high school level. Results with the U. N. and Russian flags were very similar to those for American children: the U. N. showing steady growth in preference; the Soviet, persistent rejection.

2016 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 119-128 ◽  
Gang Lee ◽  
Yanghee Kim

To identify ways that national culture, school characteristics, and individual attributes impact the victimization of students in Grade 8, data from the United States and three East Asian countries (i.e., Japan, S. Korea, and Taiwan) were compared using the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Hierarchical Liner Modeling (HLM). The school-level factors measured by school size, school resources, and perceived behavioral problems on campus did not predict middle school students’ victimization in the United States, but significant positive parental involvement and negative school resources were found to impact the victimization of students in the East Asian countries. Regarding the effects of the student-level variables, boys, in comparison to girls and students showing less attachment to the schools, were more victimized in U.S. and East Asian schools. Individual students’ perceived parental monitoring was a significant and positive predictor of students’ victimization in the East Asian schools only. The standard test scores in mathematics were not predictive of victimization in U.S. and East Asian participants. The results indicated that understanding the ecological factors involved in victimization is important to intervene effectively, protect students, and prevent peer victimization on campus. 

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