To understand the distinctiveness of ports under state socialism, it is necessary to shift the focus from the built environment to flows of people, goods, knowledge and capital. In so doing, this article examines the operation of Yugoslavia's main shipping line, Jugolinija, from its inception in 1947 until 1960. This enterprise was based in the port of Rijeka, with both firm and port experiencing rapid growth during this period. The impact of state socialism can be seen in the primacy of the political over the profitability of the firm, with Jugolinija used to advance Yugoslavia's foreign trade and foreign policy, its interests being subordinated to the project of building self-managed socialism. It can also be seen in the unique challenges posed by having to operate at the intersection of the global market and a highly regulated economy – a situation that also created opportunities for the firm as a whole, as well as for its employees, who had access to foreign currency, travel and knowledge of the world. Jugolinija's privileged access to the world in what was still very much a closed society also created opportunities for ‘leaks’ of personnel and goods. Finally, socialist ideology left its imprint on Jugolinija's operations and shaped the ways in which its employees understood their work and the place of the firm within the Yugoslav economy. While it is tempting to see state socialism as ‘getting in the way’ of Jugolinija's business, in actuality the firm was remarkably successful both at operating within the Yugoslav socialist state framework, and capitalizing on the opportunities provided by access to the global market. Jugolinija's employees, in turn, profited from the mobility that came with working for the firm, sometimes at the expense of the enterprise and the state.
Keselamatan dan keamanan pelayaran merupakan suatu kajian yang harus mendapatkan perhatian yang lebih serius pada decade terakhir ini, mengingat semakin banyaknya kasus kecelakaan kapal yang diakibatkan oleh adanya human-error. Perhitungan stabilitas kapal dengan basic jumlah dan berat dari tiap party barang yang dimuat diatas kapal adalah salahsatu factor penentu dalam menyusun stowage barang diatas kapal terutama untuk kapal-kapal cellular yang memuat barang dalam kemasan container. Karena sebagaimana diketahui bersama bahwa pada lazimnya shipper hanya memberitahukan perkiraan berat barangnya saja tanpa mencantumkan berat containernya, sedangkan dalam kenyataannya barang tersebut dimuat diatas kapal bersamaan dengan containernya, sehingga bagi shipping line data berat barang yang disampaikan oleh shipper tersebut belum akurat. Olehkarena itu melalui organisasi maritime dunia (IMO) diterbitkanlah suatu amandemen yang bersifat mandatory kepada semua shipper diwajibkan untuk menyampaikan verifikasi hasil timbang barang dengan benar termasuk berat containernya secara tertulis kepada shipping-line sebelum container tersebut dikapalkan. Bila tidak ada surat pernyataan (verifikasi) tentang berat barang dan containernya, maka shipping line dilarang untuk memuat container tersebut. Pernyataan atau verifikasi ini dikenal dengan istilah VGM (verified Gross Mass)
A monitoring activity for the existence of portunid crabs in the narrowest part of Madura Strait has been done from 2001 to 2004. Crabs have been collected in June or July each year in day time during spring tide. Crab collection was carried out in four sampling station (I to IV) using 0,5 cm trawl net for 10 minutes netting in each time. The results show that during four year monitoring six species of portunid crab has been captured. Among the six species three of them, Charybdis affinis, C. anisodon, and Portunus pelagicus were collected each year even with difference level in local distribution. C. affinis and P. pelagicus have been monitored in the same three stations, and C. anisodon has also been monitored in three stations but differs from other three portunid crab species, C. annulata. P. trituberculatus, and Scylla paramamosain were very rare and have been captured in less then three sampling times collection. We conclude that in this area the portunid crab has been dominated by C. affinis which have less economic value, and for C. anisodon even the number higher than other portunid genus the occurrence is not stabil as in C. affinis.
Abstract The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has seriously damaged the operational harmony of container shipping. Initially, it led to a decrease in the overall throughput of containerized cargo. The industry has faced blank sailings and a lack of container equipment
after rising container demand. Operational harmony has not been established for more than a year. Extremely increased freight rates have unprecedently put the shippers in a difficult situation. This study examines the circumstances in terms of the shipper and shipping line relationship and
underscores the loose commitment between them. Accordingly, this study questions the mutual commitment of this relationship. This institutionally problematic relationship has become prominent in terms of its consequences in the COVID-19 pandemic era. The problematic part of this relationship
is discussed through discourse samples representing different branches of the container shipping industry, using the discourse analysis methodology supported by the literature review. The findings indicate that both shippers and shipping lines recognize that a commitment-based relationship
requires decisiveness; however, their priorities in the pandemic era overshadow it. Their mutual commitment may help to alleviate the consequences of any chaos in the future of container shipping, which requires critical projection.
Optimising the ship route is one of the most important tasks related to the operation of the vessel, its safety, and economic aspects of transport. Nevertheless, from a mathematical point of view, this problem has not been solved yet sufciently precisely due to very high complexity of the model to be used to describe the motion of the ship along the shipping line, and time- and space-dependent average values of statistical weather parameters recorded during ship sailing. Tat is why various approximate methods are used, which, among other procedures, utilize ship speed characteristics, having the form of very simple relations between basic dimensions of the ship and the expected speed decrease at the assumed weather parameters. Te paper presents a new method of calculating the speed decrease depending on technical and operating parameters of a given vessel. A computer code prepared based on this method is used for research on forecasting ship speed in real weather conditions.