Species Differences in Oxidative Metabolism of Regorafenib

Xenobiotica ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Ayaka Kojima ◽  
Ayuka Sogabe ◽  
Masayuki Nadai ◽  
Miki Katoh
Edward D. DeLamater ◽  
Walter R. Courtenay ◽  
Cecil Whitaker

Comparative scanning electron microscopy studies of fish scales of different orders, families, genera and species within genera have demonstrated differences which warrant elaboration. These differences in detail appear to be sufficient to act as “fingerprints”, at least, for family differences. To date, the lateral line scales have been primarily studied. These demonstrate differences in the lateral line canals; the pattern of ridging with or without secondary protuberances along the edges; the pattern of spines or their absence on the anterior border of the scales; the presence or absence of single or multiple holes on the ventral and dorsal sides of the lateral line canal covers. The distances between the ridges in the pattern appear likewise to be important.A statement of fish scale structure and a comparison of family and species differences will be presented.The authors wish to thank Dr. Donald Marzalek and Mr. Wallace Charm of the Marine and Atmospheric Laboratory of the University of Miami and Dr. Sheldon Moll and Dr. Richard Turnage of AMR for their exhaustive help in these preliminary studies.

Egbert W. Henry

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection has been studied in several investigations of Nicotiana tabacum leaf tissue. Earlier studies have suggested that TMV infection does not have precise infective selectivity vs. specific types of tissues. Also, such tissue conditions as vein banding, vein clearing, liquification and suberization may result from causes other than direct TMV infection. At the present time, it is thought that the plasmodesmata, ectodesmata and perhaps the plasmodesmata of the basal septum may represent the actual or more precise sites of TMV infection.TMV infection has been implicated in elevated levels of oxidative metabolism; also, TMV infection may have a major role in host resistance vs. concentration levels of phenolic-type enzymes. Therefore, enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and phenylalamine ammonia-lyase may show an increase in activity in response to TMV infection. It has been reported that TMV infection may cause a decrease in o-dihydric phenols (chlorogenic acid) in some tissues.

2019 ◽  
Vol 476 (22) ◽  
pp. 3521-3532
Eric Soubeyrand ◽  
Megan Kelly ◽  
Shea A. Keene ◽  
Ann C. Bernert ◽  
Scott Latimer ◽  

Plants have evolved the ability to derive the benzenoid moiety of the respiratory cofactor and antioxidant, ubiquinone (coenzyme Q), either from the β-oxidative metabolism of p-coumarate or from the peroxidative cleavage of kaempferol. Here, isotopic feeding assays, gene co-expression analysis and reverse genetics identified Arabidopsis 4-COUMARATE-COA LIGASE 8 (4-CL8; At5g38120) as a contributor to the β-oxidation of p-coumarate for ubiquinone biosynthesis. The enzyme is part of the same clade (V) of acyl-activating enzymes than At4g19010, a p-coumarate CoA ligase known to play a central role in the conversion of p-coumarate into 4-hydroxybenzoate. A 4-cl8 T-DNA knockout displayed a 20% decrease in ubiquinone content compared with wild-type plants, while 4-CL8 overexpression boosted ubiquinone content up to 150% of the control level. Similarly, the isotopic enrichment of ubiquinone's ring was decreased by 28% in the 4-cl8 knockout as compared with wild-type controls when Phe-[Ring-13C6] was fed to the plants. This metabolic blockage could be bypassed via the exogenous supply of 4-hydroxybenzoate, the product of p-coumarate β-oxidation. Arabidopsis 4-CL8 displays a canonical peroxisomal targeting sequence type 1, and confocal microscopy experiments using fused fluorescent reporters demonstrated that this enzyme is imported into peroxisomes. Time course feeding assays using Phe-[Ring-13C6] in a series of Arabidopsis single and double knockouts blocked in the β-oxidative metabolism of p-coumarate (4-cl8; at4g19010; at4g19010 × 4-cl8), flavonol biosynthesis (flavanone-3-hydroxylase), or both (at4g19010 × flavanone-3-hydroxylase) indicated that continuous high light treatments (500 µE m−2 s−1; 24 h) markedly stimulated the de novo biosynthesis of ubiquinone independently of kaempferol catabolism.

2019 ◽  
Vol 133 (4) ◽  
pp. 474-487 ◽  
Eloísa M. Guerreiro Martins ◽  
Antonio C. de A. Moura ◽  
Christa Finkenwirth ◽  
Michael Griesser ◽  
Judith M. Burkart

Planta Medica ◽  
2013 ◽  
Vol 79 (10) ◽  
O Gordon ◽  
AC Ketron ◽  
N Osheroff ◽  
C Schneider

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