scholarly journals Effect of cannabidiol on apoptosis and cellular interferon and interferon-stimulated gene responses to the SARS-CoV-2 genes ORF8, ORF10 and M protein

2022 ◽  
Maria Fernanda Fernandes ◽  
John Zewen Chan ◽  
Chia Chun Joey Hung ◽  
Michelle Victoria Tomczewski ◽  
Robin Elaine Duncan

Aims: To study effects on cellular innate immune responses to novel genes ORF8 and ORF10, and the more conserved Membrane protein (M protein) from the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19, either alone, or in combination with cannabidiol (CBD). Main Methods: HEK293 cells were transfected with a control plasmid, or plasmids expressing ORF8, ORF10, or M protein, and assayed for cell number and markers of apoptosis at 24 h, and expression of interferon and interferon-stimulated genes at 14 h. Key findings: A significant reduction in cell number, and increase in early and late apoptosis, was found after 24 h in cells where expression of viral genes was combined with 1-2 μM CBD treatment, but not in control-transfected cells treated with CBD, or in cells expressing viral genes but treated only with vehicle. CBD (2 μM) augmented expression of IFNγ, IFNλ1 and IFNλ2/3, as well as the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) family members OAS1, OAS2, OAS3, and OASL, in cells expressing ORF8, ORF10, and M protein. CBD also augmented expression of these genes in control cells not expressing viral genes, without enhancing apoptosis. Significance: Our results demonstrate a poor ability of HEK293 cells to respond to SARS-CoV-2 genes alone, but suggest an augmented innate anti-viral response to these genes in the presence of CBD. Furthermore, our results indicate that CBD may prime components of the innate immune system, increasing readiness to respond to viral infection without activating apoptosis, and therefore could be studied for potential in prophylaxis.

Jing Yang ◽  
Xiang Zhou ◽  
Rui Zhang ◽  
Hui Sun ◽  
Fuping You ◽  

2021 ◽  
Tai L Ng ◽  
Erika J Olson ◽  
Tae Yeon Yoo ◽  
H. Sloane Weiss ◽  
Yukiye Koide ◽  

Suppression of the host innate immune response is a critical aspect of viral replication. Upon infection, viruses may introduce one or more proteins that inhibit key immune pathways, such as the type I interferon pathway. However, the ability to predict and evaluate viral protein bioactivity on targeted pathways remains challenging and is typically done on a single virus/gene basis. Here, we present a medium-throughput high-content cell-based assay to reveal the immunosuppressive effects of viral proteins. To test the predictive power of our approach, we developed a library of 800 genes encoding known, predicted, and uncharacterized human viral genes. We find that previously known immune suppressors from numerous viral families such as Picornaviridae and Flaviviridae recorded positive responses. These include a number of viral proteases for which we further confirmed that innate immune suppression depends on protease activity. A class of predicted inhibitors encoded by Rhabdoviridae viruses was demonstrated to block nuclear transport, and several previously uncharacterized proteins from uncultivated viruses were shown to inhibit nuclear transport of the transcription factors NF-kB and IRF3. We propose that this pathway-based assay, together with early sequencing, gene synthesis, and viral infection studies, could partly serve as the basis for rapid in vitro characterization of novel viral proteins.

2021 ◽  
Vol 102 (9) ◽  
Kiran Bala Sharma ◽  
Simran Chhabra ◽  
Suruchi Aggarwal ◽  
Aarti Tripathi ◽  
Arup Banerjee ◽  

Advances in proteomics have enabled a comprehensive understanding of host–pathogen interactions. Here we have characterized Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection-driven changes in the mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) proteome. Through tandem mass tagging (TMT)-based mass spectrometry, we describe changes in 7.85 % of the identified proteome due to JEV infection. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that proteins involved in innate immune sensing, interferon responses and inflammation were the major upregulated group, along with the immunoproteasome and poly ADP-ribosylation proteins. Functional validation of several upregulated anti-viral innate immune proteins, including an active cGAS–STING axis, was performed. Through siRNA depletion, we describe a crucial role of the DNA sensor cGAS in restricting JEV replication. Further, many interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were observed to be induced in infected cells. We also observed activation of TLR2 and inhibition of TLR2 signalling using TLR1/2 inhibitor CU-CPT22-blocked production of inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNF-α from virus-infected N9 microglial cells. The major proteins that were downregulated by infection were involved in cell adhesion (collagens), transport (solute carrier and ATP-binding cassette transporters), sterol and lipid biosynthesis. Several collagens were found to be transcriptionally downregulated in infected MEFs and mouse brain. Collectively, our data provide a bird’s-eye view into how fibroblast protein composition is rewired following JEV infection.

mSphere ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
Ana A. Weil ◽  
Crystal N. Ellis ◽  
Meti D. Debela ◽  
Taufiqur R. Bhuiyan ◽  
Rasheduzzaman Rashu ◽  

ABSTRACT Vibrio cholerae infection provides long-lasting protective immunity, while oral, inactivated cholera vaccines (OCV) result in more-limited protection. To identify characteristics of the innate immune response that may distinguish natural V. cholerae infection from OCV, we stimulated differentiated, macrophage-like THP-1 cells with live versus heat-inactivated V. cholerae with and without endogenous or exogenous cholera holotoxin (CT). Interleukin 23A gene (IL23A) expression was higher in cells exposed to live V. cholerae than in cells exposed to inactivated organisms (mean change, 38-fold; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.0 to 42; P < 0.01). IL-23 secretion was also higher in cells exposed to live V. cholerae than in cells exposed to inactivated V. cholerae (mean change, 5.6-fold; 95% CI, 4.4 to 11; P < 0.001). This increase in IL-23 secretion was more marked than for other key innate immune cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and IL-6) and dependent on exposure to the combination of both live V. cholerae and CT. While IL-23 secretion was reduced following stimulation with either heat-inactivated wild-type V. cholerae or a live isogenic ctxAB mutant of V. cholerae, the addition of exogenous CT restored IL-23 secretion in combination with the live isogenic ctxAB mutant V. cholerae, but not when it was paired with stimulation by heat-inactivated V. cholerae. The posttranslational regulation of IL-23 under these conditions was dependent on the activity of the cysteine protease cathepsin B. In humans, IL-23 promotes the differentiation of Th17 cells to T follicular helper cells, which maintain and support long-term memory B cell generation after infection. Based on these findings, the stimulation of IL-23 production may be a determinant of protective immunity following V. cholerae infection. IMPORTANCE An episode of cholera provides better protection against reinfection than oral cholera vaccines, and the reasons for this are still under study. To better understand this, we compared the immune responses of human cells exposed to live Vibrio cholerae with those of cells exposed to heat-killed V. cholerae (similar to the contents of oral cholera vaccines). We also compared the effects of active cholera toxin and the inactive cholera toxin B subunit (which is included in some cholera vaccines). One key immune signaling molecule, IL-23, was uniquely produced in response to the combination of live bacteria and active cholera holotoxin. Stimulation with V. cholerae that did not produce the active toxin or was killed did not produce an IL-23 response. The stimulation of IL-23 production by cholera toxin-producing V. cholerae may be important in conferring long-term immunity after cholera.

2019 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 493-502 ◽  
Philipp Hubel ◽  
Christian Urban ◽  
Valter Bergant ◽  
William M. Schneider ◽  
Barbara Knauer ◽  

2020 ◽  
Vol 117 (40) ◽  
pp. 24802-24812 ◽  
Salima Daou ◽  
Manisha Talukdar ◽  
Jinle Tang ◽  
Beihua Dong ◽  
Shuvojit Banerjee ◽  

The oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)–RNase L system is an IFN-inducible antiviral pathway activated by viral infection. Viral double-stranded (ds) RNA activates OAS isoforms that synthesize the second messenger 2-5A, which binds and activates the pseudokinase-endoribonuclease RNase L. In cells, OAS activation is tamped down by ADAR1, an adenosine deaminase that destabilizes dsRNA. Mutation of ADAR1 is one cause of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), an interferonopathy in children. ADAR1 deficiency in human cells can lead to RNase L activation and subsequent cell death. To evaluate RNase L as a possible therapeutic target for AGS, we sought to identify small-molecule inhibitors of RNase L. A 500-compound library of protein kinase inhibitors was screened for modulators of RNase L activity in vitro. We identified ellagic acid (EA) as a hit with 10-fold higher selectivity against RNase L compared with its nearest paralog, IRE1. SAR analysis identified valoneic acid dilactone (VAL) as a superior inhibitor of RNase L, with 100-fold selectivity over IRE1. Mechanism-of-action analysis indicated that EA and VAL do not bind to the pseudokinase domain of RNase L despite acting as ATP competitive inhibitors of the protein kinase CK2. VAL is nontoxic and functional in cells, although with a 1,000-fold decrease in potency, as measured by RNA cleavage activity in response to treatment with dsRNA activator or by rescue of cell lethality resulting from self dsRNA induced by ADAR1 deficiency. These studies lay the foundation for understanding novel modes of regulating RNase L function using small-molecule inhibitors and avenues of therapeutic potential.

Blood ◽  
1994 ◽  
Vol 84 (12) ◽  
pp. 4316-4321 ◽  
T Szekeres ◽  
M Fritzer ◽  
H Strobl ◽  
K Gharehbaghi ◽  
G Findenig ◽  

Increased ribonucleotide reductase (RR) activity has been linked with malignant transformation and tumor cell growth. Therefore, this enzyme is considered to be an excellent target for cancer chemotherapy. We have examined the effects of a newly patented RR inhibitor, trimidox (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzohydroxamidoxime). Trimidox inhibited the growth of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells with an IC50 of 35 mumol/L. Incubation of HL-60 cells with 50 mumol/L trimidox for 24 hours decreased deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) and deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) pools to 24% and 39% of control values, respectively. Incubation of HL-60 cells with 20 to 80 mumol/L trimidox even up to a period of 4 days did not alter the distribution of cells in different phases of cell cycle. Sequential incubation of HL-60 cells with trimidox (25 mumol/L) for 24 hours and then with 10 mumol/L tiazofurin (an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase) for 4 days produced synergistic growth inhibitory activity, and the cell number decreased to 16% of untreated controls. When differentiation- linked cell surface marker expressions were determined in cells treated with trimidox and tiazofurin, a significantly increased fluorescence intensity was observed for the CD 11b (2.9-fold). CD 33 (1.9-fold), and HLA-D cell surface antigens. Expression of the transferrin receptor (CD71) increased 7.3-fold in cells treated with both agents, compared with untreated controls. Our results suggest that trimidox in combination with tiazofurin might be useful in the treatment of leukemia.

Viruses ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1196
Karsten Krey ◽  
Aleksandra W. Babnis ◽  
Andreas Pichlmair

Viruses pose substantial challenges for society, economy, healthcare systems, and research. Their distinctive pathologies are based on specific interactions with cellular factors. In order to develop new antiviral treatments, it is of central importance to understand how viruses interact with their host and how infected cells react to the virus on a molecular level. Invading viruses are commonly sensed by components of the innate immune system, which is composed of a highly effective yet complex network of proteins that, in most cases, mediate efficient virus inhibition. Central to this process is the activity of interferons and other cytokines that coordinate the antiviral response. So far, numerous methods have been used to identify how viruses interact with cellular processes and revealed that the innate immune response is highly complex and involves interferon-stimulated genes and their binding partners as functional factors. Novel approaches and careful experimental design, combined with large-scale, high-throughput methods and cutting-edge analysis pipelines, have to be utilized to delineate the antiviral innate immune landscape at a global level. In this review, we describe different currently used screening approaches, how they contributed to our knowledge on virus–host interactions, and essential considerations that have to be taken into account when planning such experiments.

2017 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 85-93 ◽  
Keaton M. Crosse ◽  
Ebony A. Monson ◽  
Michael R. Beard ◽  
Karla J. Helbig

The ability of a host to curb a viral infection is heavily reliant on the effectiveness of an initial antiviral innate immune response, resulting in the upregulation of interferon (IFN) and, subsequently, IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). ISGs serve to mount an antiviral state within a host cell, and although the specific antiviral function of a number of ISGs has been characterized, the function of many of these ISGs remains to be determined. Recent research has uncovered a novel role for a handful of ISGs, some of them directly induced by IFN regulatory factor 3 in the absence of IFN itself. These ISGs, most with potent antiviral activity, are also able to augment varying arms of the innate immune response to viral infection, thereby strengthening this response. This new understanding of the role of ISGs may, in turn, help the recent advancement of novel therapeutics aiming to augment innate signaling pathways in an attempt to control viral infection and pathogenesis.

2020 ◽  
Vol 52 (7) ◽  
pp. 757-767 ◽  
Ruyuan Zhou ◽  
Qian Zhang ◽  
Pinglong Xu

Abstract Sensing of intracellular and extracellular environments is one of the fundamental processes of cell. Surveillance of aberrant nucleic acids, derived either from invading pathogens or damaged organelle, is conducted by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including RIG-I-like receptors, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, absent in melanoma 2, and a few members of toll-like receptors. TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), along with its close analogue I-kappa-B kinase epsilon, is a central kinase in innate adaptor complexes linking activation of PRRs to mobilization of transcriptional factors that transcribe proinflammatory cytokines, type I interferon (IFN-α/β), and myriads interferon stimulated genes. However, it still remains elusive for the precise mechanisms of activation and execution of TBK1 in signaling platforms formed by innate adaptors mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), stimulator of interferon genes protein (STING), and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), as well as its complex regulations. An atlas of TBK1 substrates is in constant expanding, setting TBK1 as a key node of signaling network and a dominant player in contexts of cell biology, animal models, and human diseases. Here, we review recent advancements of activation, regulations, and functions of TBK1 under these physiological and pathological contexts.

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