Knowledge and implementation gaps in disaster risk reduction and spatial planning: Palu City, Indonesia
PurposeThis paper aims to explore the involvement of various actors in the preparation of Palu City's spatial plan before the multi-hazard events of 2018. In addition, it evaluates the extent to which disaster risk reduction (DRR) is mainstreamed in the spatial plan.Design/methodology/approachThe study uses qualitative methods of analysis with a risk-based planning approach and stakeholder analysis.FindingsIt is critical that DRR is mainstreamed in spatial planning from the preparation to the implementation. Disasters can take place when there is a knowledge gap in the planning process. This results in developments in disaster-prone areas and even in high-risk areas. Therefore, mainstreaming DRR into spatial planning requires national guidelines that offer planners at the local level clear and detailed guidance on what they must prepare, consider and do in a risk-based spatial planning process.Practical implicationsSpatial planning that does not mainstream DRR can lead to catastrophic consequences in the form of casualties and losses when multi-hazards occur.Originality/valueThe study provides evidence-based findings on the importance of mainstreaming DRR into spatial planning, particularly in areas prone to multi-hazards, which can be optimized through a risk-based planning approach.