Shocking secret you won’t believe! Emotional arousal in clickbait headlines

2019 ◽  
Vol 43 (7) ◽  
pp. 1136-1150
Supavich (Fone) Pengnate

Purpose Clickbait has become a popular strategy for attracting online users by enticing them to follow the link to a particular website to read further. The purpose of this paper is to fill a gap in the literature by providing empirical evidence of how clickbait headlines affect online users’ emotional and behavioral responses, specifically emotional arousal and intention to read news. In addition, it is an early attempt to examine pupillary dilation response as an indicator of emotional arousal in the online news context. Design/methodology/approach An experiment was conducted primarily to examine the levels of emotional arousal evoked by two treatment groups of online news headlines, news and clickbait, compared to a neutral control group. Emotional arousal was assessed using two approaches – pupillary dilation response recorded by an eye-tracking device and the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) – and the results were compared. The influence of emotional arousal on intention to read news was hypothesized and tested. Findings The level of emotional arousal evoked by the headlines varies. In general, clickbait headlines generate a higher level of emotional arousal than do the neutral headlines but a lower level than the news headlines. The results also indicate that the level of emotional arousal measured by pupillary dilation response and by SAM are somewhat consistent. Emotional arousal appears to be a significant predictor of intention to read news. Originality/value This study is an initial attempt to investigate how clickbait headlines influence online users’ perceptions and responses, which will be of interest to researchers and news media publishers. The current study also provides evidence for adopting pupillary dilation response, an unobtrusive measure of emotional response, as an alternative methodology for future studies that investigate emotional arousal related to textual information in the online news context.

2019 ◽  
Vol 72 (1) ◽  
pp. 49-66 ◽  
Tingting Jiang ◽  
Qian Guo ◽  
Shunchang Chen ◽  
Jiaqi Yang

Purpose The headlines of online news are created carefully to influence audience news selection today. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between news headline presentation and users’ clicking behavior. Design/methodology/approach Two types of unobtrusive data were collected and analyzed jointly for this purpose. A two-month server log file containing 39,990,200 clickstream records was obtained from an institutional news site. A clickstream data analysis was conducted at the footprint and movement levels, which extracted 98,016 clicks received by 7,120 headlines ever displayed on the homepage. Meanwhile, the presentation of these headlines was characterized from seven dimensions, i.e. position, format, text length, use of numbers, use of punctuation marks, recency and popularity, based on the layout and content crawled from the homepage. Findings This study identified a series of presentation characteristics that prompted users to click on the headlines, including placing them in the central T-shaped zones, using images, increasing text length properly for greater clarity, using visually distinctive punctuation marks, and providing recency and popularity indicators. Originality/value The findings have valuable implications for news providers in attracting clicks to their headlines. Also, the successful application of nonreactive methods has significant implications for future user studies in both information science and journalism.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Ruijuan Wu ◽  
Yan Li

PurposeThe objective of this study was to examine the effects of human model backgrounds (concrete backgrounds vs. solid backgrounds) on consumer responses (attention and attitude) and to determine the mechanism and boundary conditions behind such effects.Design/methodology/approachThe research consisted of one eye-tracking experiment and two experimental studies.FindingsThe results showed that consumers notice faster and pay more attention to the central figure against solid backgrounds. However, concrete backgrounds elicit more favorable attitudes toward products, and mental imagery mediates the effects of image backgrounds on consumers' attitudes. The authors also found that the situation moderates the relationship between image background and attitude.Originality/valueThe study also supplements the literature on the effects of image backgrounds on consumer responses and the literature on online presentation using human models. Last, the study combines questionnaires with an eye-tracking experiment to obtain a clearer and more comprehensive understanding of the results.

2019 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 95-114 ◽  
Jeeyeon Jeannie Hahm ◽  
Asli D.A. Tasci

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to measure country image and destination image of Brazil and identify influential information sources as image agents that help forming these images. Design/methodology/approach An online sample of respondents residing in the USA was surveyed using a structured survey design. County image, destination image and information sources were measured using seven-point Likert scales. Frequencies, descriptives, correlation analyses, t-test and ordinary least squares regression were used to analyze the data. Findings The findings revealed that Brazil’s destination image is stronger than its country image. Brazil’s destination image is rated above the middle rank (4) on the seven-point scale, the strongest attributes being scenic beauty, beaches and water attractions. Its country image, on the other hand, is below the middle rank (4) on the seven-point scale. Correlated with seven of the nine country image items, general knowledge from school is potentially the most influential agent for country image while word-of-mouth, printed or online news media and TV programs are potentially the most influential agent for destination image. Originality/value The image of Brazil has not been a focus of existing empirical research. Also, this study bridges the gap between country image and destination image in relation to information sources.

2019 ◽  
Vol 75 (4) ◽  
pp. 694-708 ◽  
Amalia Juneström

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to bridge a gap in knowledge on the professional information practices of a group of people whose daily work of managing user-generated content online exposes them to users whom they perceive as acting aggressively or otherwise offensively online. Design/methodology/approach Journalists’ narratives of practices for managing and responding to user comments perceived as offensive are analysed qualitatively. For this purpose, ten interviews with journalists from nine different news organisations in Sweden, Denmark, Germany and Canada were conducted. Findings The study finds that the environment in which the journalists work plays a vital role in the evolution of the practices. Practices, indissolubly tied to the contexts or sites in which people’s activities take place, are conditioned by moral values, traditions and collective experiences which journalists enact through the practice they engage in when they are dealing with user posts online. The site, conceived as an information landscape, is that of the newsroom. Practices for managing users online evolve through actors participating in a process of learning and their ability to adopt the cultural norms and values of their environment. Originality/value This study sheds light on the mechanisms behind the evolution of practices for handling user-generated content online and it reports on the importance of properties such as norms, values and emotions for how things are done in the information landscape of news journalism.

2019 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 573-599 ◽  
Vincent Tawiah ◽  
Pran Boolaky

Purpose This paper aims to examine the drivers of companies’ compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) using the stakeholder salience theory. Design/methodology/approach The authors have used panel data from 205 companies to examine the IFRS compliance level across 13 African countries. This study has also established the relationship between stakeholders’ attributes and firms’ compliance with IFRS. Findings On IFRS compliance, the authors found that the average compliance score among the companies over the period was 73.09 per cent, with a minimum score of 62.86 per cent and a maximum of 85.61 per cent. The authors found a significant positive association between audit committee competence and compliance, as well as among chartered accountants on board. There is less compliance with the latest standards, such as IFRS 3, 7 and 13. Also, IAS 17, 19, 36 and 37 are problematic across the sample. The authors also found that compliance has been increasing over the years. Practical implications For companies, this study provides empirical evidence on the importance of having chartered accountants’ corporate boards, as well as competent audit committees involved in ensuring high compliance with IFRS. The findings also provide valuable information for professional accounting organizations on the role of their members (chartered accountants) in the effectiveness of IFRS compliance. Originality/value This study complements and updates prior studies on IFRS compliance with findings from Africa, a region that has been neglected in the literature. It provides empirical evidence on the importance of chartered accountants sitting on corporate boards in ensuring high compliance with IFRS.

2016 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 20-39 ◽  
Gary D. Holt ◽  
Jack Steven Goulding ◽  
Akintola Akintoye

Purpose – Perceptions drawn from the construction management research (CMR) community regarding research impact (RI) and its relationship to theory generation (TG) are examined. Investigative emphasis is on RI and TG enablers and challenges (within an academic context). The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative narrative data accrued from open-ended questions within a structured questionnaire survey are analysed using frequency, quantitative content analysis, and graphical methods. A model of the RI/TG interface is presented and discussed. Findings – Principal RI enablers are “facilitation” (industry engagement, time); while principal constraints include “internal factors” (the academic, the university) and “external factors” (collaboration, funding). Respective TG enablers are “resources” (competence, time, funding) and corresponding challenges include “external factors” (market forces, compliance). RI is considered a minor challenge to TG. Research limitations/implications – The study adds empirical evidence to the ongoing RI debate within the UK generally and with regard to the CMR discipline more specifically. Originality/value – RI research is relatively sparse, while the findings in regard to CMR are entirely novel.

2019 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Francisca Gutiérrez Crocco ◽  
Angel Martin

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss why and how the notion of sustainability has been integrated to the practices of HRM in Chile. Especially, it examines how the union‒management relationship shapes and is shaped by the adoption of a sustainable approach. By doing so, it contributes to a broader debate about HRM in Latin America. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on a case study conducted between 2016 and 2018 in two large companies. In each of these companies, besides the analysis of internal and administrative documentation, human resource managers, line managers and union officers were interviewed. Findings In this paper, two main findings are discussed. First, the sustainable HRM idea installed in Chile has not involved a total renunciation of some old ideological frames, but rather an adjustment of these. The old paternalist managerialism is shaping a path to a new HRM model, willing to yield part of its control to workers, but not less unitarist in its foundations. Second, the sustainable HRM concept adoption by the studied companies is not primarily motivated by economic goals as it may have occurred in other contexts, but by the need of a solution to labour conflicts in a context of union action renewal. Practical implications This research could be used to teach about leadership, strategy and sustainability, highlighting the importance of understanding the contested nature of the employment relations within these processes of changing. To accomplish this, HR practitioners need to get more involved with pluralistic perspectives in labour relations and thus achieve effective sustainable practices in the workplace. It is also relevant that unions recognise and strengthen their ability to influence these policies. Originality/value This paper sheds lights on how the concept of sustainable HRM has been introduced in Latin America, which has been slightly discussed in mainstream scientific literature. It also provides empirical evidence about unexplored and recent changes in HRM and proposes new perspectives for the study of this topic in the region, considering variables as the managerial ideologies, current labour disputes and the relevance of trade union voice.

2020 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Hicham Meghouar ◽  
Mohammed Ibrahimi

PurposeThe purpose of this research is to highlight the financial characteristics of large French targets which were subject to takeovers during the period 2001–2007 and thereafter deduct the implicit motivations of acquirers.Design/methodology/approachUsing a global sample of 128 French listed companies (64 targets and 64 non-targets), the authors carried out Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney testing and logistic regression in order to test nine hypotheses likely to discriminate between the two categories of companies (targets and non-targets).FindingsAccording to the results, target firms are more unbalanced in terms of growth resources and less rich in liquidity than their peers. They have unused debt capacity, offer greater opportunities for growth than firms in the control group and present low levels of value creation.Research limitations/implicationsThe main limitation of this study is regarding the sample size, limited by the exclusive use of large firms (deals of over $100m). The scope of this research could be broadened in future by including medium-sized companies.Practical implicationsThe authors believe that their results have two major implications. First, they enable market investors to achieve abnormal returns by investing in predicted targets through a portfolio of high takeover probability firms. Second, CEO of companies that are potentially targeted can assess their takeover likelihood in order to act and to manage such a situation for the benefit of their shareholders.Originality/valueThis research concerns the last wave of takeover prior to the subprime-mortgage financial crisis (2001–2007), a period that has not been sufficiently covered in empirical studies. This research contributes to the existing literature in two main respects. First, the results of this study improve our understanding of motivations for takeovers, particularly in the French context. Second, the introduction of new accounting and financial variables, not previously tested in the literature, enriches the available information concerning the profile of takeover targets.

2019 ◽  
Vol 26 (7) ◽  
pp. 1607-1625
Anita Gaile ◽  
Ilona Baumane-Vitolina ◽  
Erika Sumilo ◽  
Daina Skiltere ◽  
Ricardo Martin Flores

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the differences in the values and behaviours of employees and entrepreneurs and to develop guidelines for employers to foster entrepreneurial thinking in their organisations. Design/methodology/approach To determine individual behaviours, the authors used the career adaptability scale developed by Savickas and Porfelli (2012), complemented with the statements regarding relationships in the workplace and reward, designed by Gattiker and Larwood (1986). The individual values were evaluated by Schwartz’s individual value framework. The career success of individuals was defined by income level and job satisfaction. Data from a sample of 473 respondents were analysed using structural equation modelling. Findings This paper reveals that there are differences in the behaviours and the values of employees and entrepreneurs. Employees are more concerned with relationships at the workplace, rewards and confidence, whereas entrepreneurs focus solely on relationships. Self-direction value has a direct positive impact. Universalism, conformism, achievement, stimulation and safety have indirect positive effects on career success for employees. There is no specific individual value driving career success for entrepreneurs. Originality/value This paper follows the recent trends in organisational culture development whereby organisations seek to incorporate the entrepreneurial mindset at all levels of the organisation. Until now, there has been scarce empirical evidence on the differences between entrepreneurial and employee values. This research provides evidence that the value gap between these two distinct groups is considerable enough to question the ability of the average employee to adopt the entrepreneurial behaviour required by modern organisations.

2016 ◽  
Vol 58 (2) ◽  
pp. 179-196 ◽  
Zgarni Inaam ◽  
Halioui Khamoussi

Purpose – Many researchers, in several contexts, have investigated the influence of audit committee effectiveness and audit quality variables on reducing the extent of earnings management, and empirical evidence is rather inconsistent. Design/methodology/approach – The aim of this paper is to meta-analyze the results of 58 prior studies that examined whether differences in results are related to moderating effects associated with corporate governance mechanisms or measures of earnings management. Findings – The findings show that the meta-analysis identifies many significant relationships. The independence of the audit committee, its size, expertise and the number of meetings have a negative relationship with earnings management. Similar negative relationships exist between auditor size, specialization and earnings management. Research limitations/implications – This study contributes to the corporate governance literature. Further, recognizing the function of an audit committee and audit quality shows the value of considering an institutional setting in governance research. This study is significant to academic and practitioner literatures, policy makers and professional accounting bodies as it shows that governance reforms promote companies to adopt good governance practices. The results also give useful information to investors in examining the effect of audit committee characteristics and audit quality on earnings quality. Originality/value – This study extends existing research on audit committee and audit quality to oversee both accrual and real earnings management using meta-analysis. Thus, this study has the potential to help stakeholders, board of directors, regulators and auditors, who are related with enhancing the supervision of firms and reducing the opportunities given to managers, to engage in earnings management.

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