Long distance transport in plants takes place in phloem tissue which has characteristic cells, the sieve elements. At maturity these cells have sieve areas in their end walls with specialized perforations. They are associated with companion cells, parenchyma cells, and in some species, with transfer cells. The protoplast of the functioning sieve element contains a high concentration of sugar, and consequently a high hydrostatic pressure, which makes it extremely difficult to fix mature sieve elements for electron microscopical observation without the formation of surge artifacts. Despite many structural studies which have attempted to prevent surge artifacts, several features of mature sieve elements, such as the distribution of P-protein and the nature of the contents of the sieve area pores, remain controversial.
On the occasion of diagnosing a popliteal entrapment syndrome in a 59-year old man with no cardiovascular risk factors, who developed acute ischemic leg pain during long distance running, we give an overview on this entity with emphasis on patientsage. The different types of the popliteal artery compression syndrome are summarized. The diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are discussed. The most important clinical sign of a popliteal entrapment syndrome is the lack of atherosclerotic risk factors in patients with limited walking distance. Not only in young athletes but also in patients more than 50 years old the popliteal entrapment syndrome has to be taken into account.
This study aimed to explore the relationships between attachment styles, proximity, and relational satisfaction. This was achieved by assessing a distinct type of long distance romantic relationship of flying crews, compared with proximal (non-flying crew) romantic relationships. The responses of 139 expatriate professionals revealed significant associations between proximity and anxious and avoidant attachment dimensions. The role of the avoidant dimension in comparison with that of the anxious dimension was found to be a significant predictor of relational satisfaction. This study contributes significantly toward addressing the role of proximity and attachment in relational satisfaction in a new context of geographic separation.