Augmenting ground-level communications with flying networks, such as the high-altitude platform system (HAPS), is among the major innovative initiatives of the next generation of wireless systems (6G). Given HAPS quasi-static positioning at the stratosphere, HAPS-to-ground and HAPS-to-air connectivity frameworks are expected to be prolific in terms of data acquisition and computing, especially given the mild weather and quasi-constant wind speed characteristics of the stratospheric layer. This paper explores the opportunities stemming from the realization of cloud-enabled HAPS in the context of telecommunications applications and services. The paper first advocates for the potential physical advantages of deploying HAPS as flying data-centers, also known as super-macro base stations. The paper then describes various cloud services that can be offered from the HAPS and the merits that can be achieved by this integration, such as enhancing the quality, speed, and range of the offered services. The proposed services span a wide range of fields, including satellites, Internet of Things (IoT), ad hoc networks (such as sensor; vehicular; and aerial networks), gaming, and social networks. For each service, the paper illustrates the methods that would be used by cloud providers to offload the service data to the HAPS and enable the cloud customers to consume the service. The paper further sheds light on the challenges that need to be addressed for realizing practical cloud-enabled HAPS, mainly, those related to high energy, processing power, quality of service (QoS), and security considerations. Finally, the paper discusses some open issues on the topic, namely, HAPS mobility and message routing, HAPS security via blockchain and machine learning, artificial intelligence-based resource allocation in cloud-enabled HAPS, and integration with vertical heterogeneous networks.
AbstractIn the present study, the application of free space optics (FSO) transmission system to realize a long-reach high-altitude platform (HAP)-to-satellite communication link has been exploited. High-speed information transmission without interference is accomplished using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Further, the information capacity of the proposed system is increased by employing mode division multiplexing (MDM). We have investigated the proposed MDM-OFDM-HAP-to-satellite FSO transmission system performance over varying FSO range, diameter of the receiver, pointing errors, and input power. Also, an improved transmission performance of the proposed system using a square root module is reported.
Because of the high BER (Bit Error Rate), low time delay and low channel transmission efficiency of HAPS (High Altitude Platform Station) in the near space. The link budget of HAPS and channel model are proposed in this paper. According to the channel characteristic, the channel model is set up, combined with different CNR (Carrier Noise Ratio), elevation angle, coding situations of wireless communication link by using Hamming code, PSK (Pulse Shift Keying) and Golay code respectively, then the situations of link quality and BER are analyzed. The simulation results show that the established model of the link budget and channel are suitable for the theoretical analysis results. The elevation of the HAPS communication link is smaller while the BER is increasing. The case of channel in the coding is better than in the un-coded situation. When every bit power and thermal noise power spectral density is larger, the BER of the HAPS communication link is becoming smaller.