The article analyzes a number of methods of knowledge formation using various graph models, including oriented, undirected graphs with the same type of edges and graphs with multiple and different types of edges. This article shows the possibilities of using graphs to represent a three-level structure of knowledge in the field of complex technical systems modeling. In such a model, at the first level, data is formed in the form of unrelated graph vertices, at the second level – information presented by a related undirected graph, and at the third level – knowledge in the form of a set of graph paths. The proposed interpretation of the structure of knowledge allows to create new opportunities for analytical study of knowledge and information, their properties and relationships.
The study of networks, including computer networks, social networks, and biological networks, has attracted enormous interest in recent years. The rise of the Internet and the wide availability of inexpensive computers have made it possible to gather and analyse network data on an unprecendented scale, and the development of new theoretical tools has allowed us to extract knowledge from networks of many different kinds. The study of networks is broadly interdisciplinary and developments have occurred in many fields, including mathematics, physics, computer and information sciences, biology, and the social science. This book brings together the most important breakthroughts in each of these fields and presents them in a unified fashion, highlighting the strong interconnections between work in different areas. Topics covered include the measurement of networks; methods for analysing network data, including methods developed in physics, statistics, and sociology; fundamentals of graph theory; computer algorithms, including spectral algorithms and community detection; mathematical models of networks such as random graph models and generative models; and models of processes taking place on networks.
It is common practice for assessment programs to organize qualifying sessions during which the raters (often known as “markers” or “judges”) demonstrate their consistency before operational rating commences. Because of the high-stakes nature of many rating activities, the research community tends to continuously explore new methods to analyze rating data. We used simulated and empirical data from two high-stakes language assessments, to propose a new approach, based on social network analysis and exponential graph models, to evaluate the readiness of a group of raters for operational rating. The results of this innovative approach are compared with the results of a Rasch analysis, which is a well-established approach for the analysis of such data. We also demonstrate how the new approach can be practically used to investigate important research questions such as whether rater severity is stable across rating tasks. The merits of the new approach, and the consequences for practice are discussed.
The dynamic responses of geared torsional systems are analyzed with the delay-bond graph technique. By transforming the power variables into torsional wave variables, the torsional elements are modeled as transmission line elements. The nonlinear elements, e.g., varying tooth stiffness, gear-tooth backlash, and nonlinear damping, are incorporated into the ideal transmission line element. A computational algorithm is established where the state variables of the system are expressed in terms of wave scattering variables and the dynamic responses are then obtained in both time and space domains. The simulation results of several simple examples of linear and nonlinear geared torsional systems are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this algorithm.