Small dislocation loops observed by transmission electron microscopy exhibit a characteristic black-white strain contrast when observed under dynamical imaging conditions. In many cases, the topography and orientation of the image may be used to determine the nature of the loop crystallography. Two distinct but somewhat overlapping procedures have been developed for the contrast analysis and identification of small dislocation loops. One group of investigators has emphasized the use of the topography of the image as the principle tool for analysis. The major premise of this method is that the characteristic details of the image topography are dependent only on the magnitude of the dot product between the loop Burgers vector and the diffracting vector. This technique is commonly referred to as the (g•b) analysis. A second group of investigators has emphasized the use of the orientation of the direction of black-white contrast as the primary means of analysis.
Background: Youth flag football participation has rapidly grown and is a potentially safer alternative to tackle football. However, limited research has quantitatively assessed youth flag football head impact biomechanics. Purpose: To describe head impact biomechanics outcomes in youth flag football and explore factors associated with head impact magnitudes. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We monitored 52 player-seasons among 48 male flag football players (mean ± SD; age, 9.4 ± 1.1 years; height, 138.6 ± 9.5 cm; mass, 34.7 ± 9.2 kg) across 3 seasons using head impact sensors during practices and games. Sensors recorded head impact frequencies, peak linear ( g) and rotational (rad/s2) acceleration, and estimated impact location. Impact rates (IRs) were calculated as 1 impact per 10 player-exposures; IR ratios (IRRs) were used to compare season, event type, and age group IRs; and 95% CIs were calculated for IRs and IRRs. Weekly and seasonal cumulative head impact frequencies and magnitudes were calculated. Mixed-model regression models examined the association between player characteristics, event type, and seasons and peak linear and rotational accelerations. Results: A total of 429 head impacts from 604 exposures occurred across the study period (IR, 7.10; 95% CI, 4.81-10.50). Weekly and seasonal cumulative median head impact frequencies were 1.00 (range, 0-2.63) and 7.50 (range, 0-21.00), respectively. The most frequent estimated head impact locations were the skull base (n = 96; 22.4%), top of the head (n = 74; 17.2%), and back of the head (n = 66; 15.4%). The combined event type IRs differed among the 3 seasons (IRR range, 1.45-2.68). Games produced greater IRs (IRR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.53) and peak linear acceleration (mean difference, 5.69 g; P = .008) than did practices. Older players demonstrated greater combined event–type IRs (IRR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.12-1.90) and increased head impact magnitudes than did younger players, with every 1-year age increase associated with a 3.78 g and 602.81-rad/s2 increase in peak linear and rotational acceleration magnitude, respectively ( P≤ .005). Conclusion: Head IRs and magnitudes varied across seasons, thus highlighting multiple season and cohort data are valuable when providing estimates. Head IRs were relatively low across seasons, while linear and rotational acceleration magnitudes were relatively high.