scholarly journals Contributions of Cathepsin A and Carboxylesterase 1 to the hydrolysis of Tenofovir Alafenamide in the Human Liver, and the Effect of CES1 Genetic Variation on Tenofovir Alafenamide Hydrolysis

2021 ◽  
pp. DMD-AR-2020-000323
Jiapeng Li ◽  
Jian Shi ◽  
Jingcheng Xiao ◽  
Lana Tran ◽  
Xinwen Wang ◽  
Pharmaceutics ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 11 (7) ◽  
pp. 355 ◽  
Deok-Kyu Hwang ◽  
Ju-Hyun Kim ◽  
Yongho Shin ◽  
Won-Gu Choi ◽  
Sunjoo Kim ◽  

Catalposide, an active component of Veronica species such as Catalpa ovata and Pseudolysimachion lingifolium, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antinociceptic, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, and cytostatic activities. We characterized the in vitro metabolic pathways of catalposide to predict its pharmacokinetics. Catalposide was metabolized to catalposide sulfate (M1), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (M2), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid glucuronide (M3), and catalposide glucuronide (M4) by human hepatocytes, liver S9 fractions, and intestinal microsomes. M1 formation from catalposide was catalyzed by sulfotransferases (SULTs) 1C4, SULT1A1*1, SULT1A1*2, and SULT1E1. Catalposide glucuronidation to M4 was catalyzed by gastrointestine-specific UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) 1A8 and UGT1A10; M4 was not detected after incubation of catalposide with human liver preparations. Hydrolysis of catalposide to M2 was catalyzed by carboxylesterases (CESs) 1 and 2, and M2 was further metabolized to M3 by UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 enzymes. Catalposide was also metabolized in extrahepatic tissues; genetic polymorphisms of the carboxylesterase (CES), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes responsible for catalposide metabolism may cause inter-individual variability in terms of catalposide pharmacokinetics.

1967 ◽  
Vol 105 (3) ◽  
pp. 1307-1312 ◽  
R. Helen Eaton ◽  
D W Moss

1. Purified human liver and small-intestinal alkaline orthophosphatases release inorganic phosphate at appreciable rates from a variety of organic pyrophosphate substrates. 2. The pyrophosphatase action is inhibited by Mg2+ ions at concentrations that activate the hydrolysis of orthophosphate substrates by these enzymes. 3. The results of mixed-substrate experiments, denaturation studies with heat or urea and starch-gel electrophoresis suggest that both orthophosphatase and pyrophosphatase activities are, in each preparation, properties of a single enzyme. 4. Intestinal phosphatase shows greater pyrophosphatase activity relative to orthophosphatase than the liver enzyme.

1980 ◽  
Vol 185 (3) ◽  
pp. 583-591 ◽  
Peter Hechtman ◽  
Zarin Kachra

The effects of surfactants on the human liver hexosaminidase A-catalysed hydrolysis of Gm2 ganglioside were assessed. Some non-ionic surfactants, including Triton X-100 and Cutscum, and some anionic surfactants, including sodium taurocholate, sodium dodecyl sulphate, phosphatidylinositol and N-dodecylsarcosinate, were able to replace the hexosaminidase A-activator protein [Hechtman (1977) Can. J. Biochem.55, 315–324; Hechtman & Leblanc (1977) Biochem. J.167, 693–701) and also stimulated the enzymic hydrolysis of substrate in the presence of saturating concentrations of activator. Other non-ionic surfactants, such as Tween 80, Brij 35 and Nonidet P40, and anionic surfactants, such as phosphatidylethanolamine, did not enhance enzymic hydrolysis of Gm2 ganglioside and inhibited hydrolysis in the presence of activator. The concentration of surfactants at which micelles form was determined by measurements of the minimum surface-tension values of reaction mixtures containing a series of concentrations of surfactant. In the case of Triton X-100, Cutscum, sodium taurocholate, N-dodecylsarcosinate and other surfactants the concentration range at which stimulation of enzymic activity occurs correlates well with the critical micellar concentration. None of the surfactants tested affected the rate of hexosaminidase A-catalysed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside. Both activator and surfactants that stimulate hydrolysis of Gm2 ganglioside decrease the Km for Gm2 ganglioside. Inhibitory surfactants are competitive with the activator protein. Evidence for a direct interaction between surfactants and Gm2 ganglioside was obtained by comparing gel-filtration profiles of 3H-labelled GM2 ganglioside in the presence and absence of surfactants. The results are discussed in terms of a model wherein a mixed micelle of surfactant or activator and GM2 ganglioside is the preferred substrate for enzymic hydrolysis.

1997 ◽  
Vol 272 (23) ◽  
pp. 14769-14775 ◽  
Evgenia V. Pindel ◽  
Natalia Y. Kedishvili ◽  
Trent L. Abraham ◽  
Monica R. Brzezinski ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  

1985 ◽  
Vol 63 (8) ◽  
pp. 830-838 ◽  
Peter Hechtman ◽  
Claudine Isaacs ◽  
Louise Smith-Jones

The human liver hexosaminidase A activator protein has been shown to bind to the substrate GM2 ganglioside by cosedimentation in sucrose density gradients. Among other proteins tested only serum albumin forms a GM2 ganglioside – protein complex. Both activator protein and albumin bind to the monomeric form of GM2 ganglioside and not to the micellar form of the substrate. The GM2 ganglioside – activator protein complex can be recovered in a stable form. Storage at various temperatures or incubation with monosaccharides or with detergent does not result in dissociation of the complex. GM2 ganglioside in the activator–substrate complex is exchangeable with exogenous GM2 ganglioside. Hexosaminidase A, prepared from human liver, hydrolyzes GM2 ganglioside in the activator–substrate complex as efficiently as GM2 ganglioside supplied exogenously. The activator – Gm2 ganglioside complex forms at pH 3.0 and exhibits an optimum similar to the pH optimum of hexosaminidase A catalyzed hydrolysis of GM2 ganglioside in the presence of the activator; however, the ability of the activator to stimulate enzymic hydrolysis of substrate is rapidly lost after heating at 75 °C, whereas its ability to bind substrate is increased. The sphingolipids cerebroside sulfate and sphingomyelin show little or no binding to the hexosaminidase A activator protein nor do they inhibit activation of hexosaminidase A catalyzed hydrolysis of GM2 ganglioside. By contrast GM1 ganglioside inhibits both substrate binding and enzyme activation.

1979 ◽  
Vol 57 (7) ◽  
pp. 1000-1007 ◽  
L. E. Seargeant ◽  
R. A. Stinson

Kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of a number of physiologically important phosphoesters by purified human liver alkaline phosphatase have been determined. The enzyme was studied at pH values of 7.0 to 10.0. The affinity of the enzyme for the compounds was determined by competition experiments and by their direct employment as substrates. Phosphodiesters and phosphonates were not hydrolysed but the latter were inhibitors. Calcium and magnesium ions inhibited the hydrolysis of ATP and PP1 and evidence is presented to show that the metal complexes of these substrates are not hydrolysed by alkaline phosphatase. A calcium-stimulated ATPase activity could not be demonstrated for the purified enzyme or the enzyme in the presence of a calcium-dependent regulator protein. Nevertheless, the influence of magnesium and calcium ions on the ATPase activity of alkaline phosphatase means that precautions must be taken when assaying for Ca2+-ATPase in the presence of alkaline phosphatase.The low substrate Km values and the hydrolysis which occurs at pH 7.4 mean that the enzyme could have a significant phosphohydrolytic role. However, liver cell phosphate concentrations, if accessible to the enzyme, are sufficient to strongly inhibit this activity.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 1656
Jiapeng Li ◽  
Shuhan Liu ◽  
Jian Shi ◽  
Hao-Jie Zhu

ProTide technology is a powerful tool for the design of nucleoside/nucleotide analog prodrugs. ProTide prodrug design improves cell permeability and enhances intracellular activation. The hydrolysis of the ester bond of a ProTide is a determinant of the intracellular activation efficiency and final antiviral efficacy of the prodrug. The hydrolysis is dictated by the catalytic activity and abundance of activating enzymes. The antiviral agents tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and sofosbuvir (SBV) are typical ProTides. Both TAF and SBV have also been proposed to treat patients with COVID-19. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of the two prodrugs in the lung remain inconclusive. In the present study, we profiled the catalytic activity of serine hydrolases in human lung S9 fractions using an activity-based protein profiling assay. We evaluated the hydrolysis of TAF and SBV using human lung and liver S9 fractions and purified enzymes. The results showed that CatA and CES1 were involved in the hydrolysis of the two prodrugs in the human lung. More specifically, CatA exhibited a nearly 4-fold higher hydrolytic activity towards TAF than SBV, whereas the CES1 activity on hydrolyzing TAF was slightly lower than that for SBV. Overall, TAF had a nearly 4-fold higher hydrolysis rate in human lung S9 than SBV. We further analyzed protein expression levels of CatA and CES1 in the human lung, liver, and primary cells of the two tissues using proteomics data extracted from the literature. The relative protein abundance of CatA to CES1 was considerably higher in the human lung and primary human airway epithelial cells than in the human liver and primary human hepatocytes. The findings demonstrated that the high susceptivity of TAF to CatA-mediated hydrolysis resulted in efficient TAF hydrolysis in the human lung, suggesting that CatA could be utilized as a target activating enzyme when designing antiviral ester prodrugs for the treatment of respiratory virus infection.

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