scholarly journals Counteracting age-related VEGF signaling insufficiency promotes healthy aging and extends life span

Science ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 373 (6554) ◽  
pp. eabc8479
M. Grunewald ◽  
S. Kumar ◽  
H. Sharife ◽  
E. Volinsky ◽  
A. Gileles-Hillel ◽  

Aging is an established risk factor for vascular diseases, but vascular aging itself may contribute to the progressive deterioration of organ function. Here, we show in aged mice that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling insufficiency, which is caused by increased production of decoy receptors, may drive physiological aging across multiple organ systems. Increasing VEGF signaling prevented age-associated capillary loss, improved organ perfusion and function, and extended life span. Healthier aging was evidenced by favorable metabolism and body composition and amelioration of aging-associated pathologies including hepatic steatosis, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, “inflammaging” (age-related multiorgan chronic inflammation), and increased tumor burden. These results indicate that VEGF signaling insufficiency affects organ aging in mice and suggest that modulating this pathway may result in increased mammalian life span and improved overall health.

Line Jee Hartmann Rasmussen ◽  
Avshalom Caspi ◽  
Antony Ambler ◽  
Andrea Danese ◽  
Maxwell Elliott ◽  

Abstract Background To understand and measure the association between chronic inflammation, aging, and age-related diseases, broadly applicable standard biomarkers of systemic chronic inflammation are needed. We tested whether elevated blood levels of the emerging chronic inflammation marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) were associated with accelerated aging, lower functional capacity, and cognitive decline. Methods We used data from the Dunedin Study, a population-representative 1972–1973 New Zealand birth cohort (n = 1037) that has observed participants to age 45 years. Plasma suPAR levels were analyzed at ages 38 and 45 years. We performed regression analyses adjusted for sex, smoking, C-reactive protein, and current health conditions. Results Of 997 still-living participants, 875 (88%) had plasma suPAR measured at age 45. Elevated suPAR was associated with accelerated pace of biological aging across multiple organ systems, older facial appearance, and with structural signs of older brain age. Moreover, participants with higher suPAR levels had greater decline in physical function and cognitive function from childhood to adulthood compared to those with lower suPAR levels. Finally, improvements in health habits between ages 38 and 45 (smoking cessation or increased physical activity) were associated with less steep increases in suPAR levels over those years. Conclusions Our findings provide initial support for the utility of suPAR in studying the role of chronic inflammation in accelerated aging and functional decline.

2019 ◽  
Vol 3 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S833-S833
Christy S Carter ◽  
Michal Masternak ◽  
Thomas W Buford

Abstract The human intestinal tract (i.e., “gut”) is inhabited by over 100 trillion microorganisms; including over 1000 species of known bacteria. These organisms have co-evolved with humans over millennia to live together for mutual benefit. Though long overlooked in considerations of human health and disease treatment, gut microorganisms are highly involved in numerous metabolic reactions which influence normal host physiology. A variety of biologic, medical, and lifestyle factors appear to contribute to gut dysbiosis in late-life, and interventions specifically designed to target these factors may be useful in restoring microbial balance. Evidence from both clinical and preclinical studies suggests that gut dysbiosis is related to age-related inflammation as well as age-related conditions including frailty, Alzheimer’s disease, and perhaps even longevity. Crosstalk between the gut and multiple organ systems (brain, heart, muscle etc.) may lead to the development of age-related diseases and loss of physiological function, although the signals are not well understood. In this symposium we address the broad topic of the Gut Microbiome and Aging by presenting evidence from multiple model systems (mice, rats and monkeys) and provide a forum to discuss critical areas of research for moving forward.

2005 ◽  
Vol 33 (6) ◽  
pp. 650-674 ◽  
Kevin P. Keenan ◽  
Chao-Min Hoe ◽  
Lori Mixson ◽  
Carol L. Mccoy ◽  
John B. Coleman ◽  

This study compared the effects of ad libitum (AL) overfeeding and moderate or marked dietary restriction (DR) on the pathogenesis of a metabolic syndrome of diabesity comprised of age-related degenerative diseases and obesity in a outbred stock of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats [Crl:CD (SD) IGS BR]. SD rats were fed Purina Certified Rodent Diet AL (group 1), DR at 72–79% of AL (group 2), DR at 68–72% of AL (group 3) or DR at 47–48% of AL (group 4) for 106 weeks. Interim necropsies were performed at 13, 26, and 53 weeks, after a 7-day 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-filled minipump implantation. Body weights, organ weights, carcass analysis, in-life data including estrous cyclicity, and histopathology were determined. At 6–7 weeks of age SD rats had 6% body fat. AL-feeding resulted in hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and dietary-induced obesity (DIO) by study week 14, with 25% body fat that progressed to 36–42% body fat by 106 weeks. As early as 14 weeks, key biomarkers developed for spontaneous nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, and degenerative changes in multiple organ systems. Early endocrine disruption was indicated by changes in metabolic and endocrine profiles and the early development and progression of lesions in the pituitary, pancreatic islets, adrenals, thyroids, parathyroids, liver, kidneys, and other tissues. Reproductive senescence was seen by 9 months with declines in estrous cyclicity and pathological changes in the reproductive organs of both sexes fed AL or moderate DR, but not marked DR. The diabesity syndrome in AL-fed, DIO SD rats was readily modulated or prevented by moderate to marked DR. Moderate DR of balanced diets resulted in a better toxicology model by significantly improving survival, controlling adult body weight and obesity, reducing the onset, severity, and morbidity of age-related renal, endocrine, metabolic, and cardiac diseases. Moderate DR feeding reduces study-to-study variability, increases treatment exposure time, and increases the ability to distinguish true treatment effects from spontaneous aging. The structural and metabolic differences between the phenotypes of DIO and DR SD rats indicated changes of polygenic expression over time in this outbred stock. AL-overfeeding of SD rats produces a needed model of DIO and diabesity that needs further study of its patterns of polygenic expression and phenotype.

2002 ◽  
Vol 283 (5) ◽  
pp. G1020-G1026 ◽  
John W. Wiley

Functional changes in GI motility associated with advanced age include slowing of gastric emptying, decreased peristalsis, and slowing of colonic transit. These changes appear to be associated with region-specific loss of neurons and impaired function. The mechanism(s) underlying physiological aging are likely to be multifactorial. Alterations in specific signal transduction pathways have been reported at the level of the receptor and postreceptor events including kinase expression and function, mitochondrial function, and activation of the apoptosis cascade. Advanced age is associated with increased oxidative stress and its concomitant effects on cellular function. Whereas no specific genes have been causally linked to life span in mammals, studies involving nonmammalian species suggest that specific genes are involved in determining life span and age-related changes in cellular function. Caloric restriction is the only intervention shown to slow aging in a variety of species. Recent studies implicate a possible role for an insulin/IGF-I cascade in the region- and tissue-specific changes associated with physiological aging.

2015 ◽  
Vol 112 (30) ◽  
pp. E4104-E4110 ◽  
Daniel W. Belsky ◽  
Avshalom Caspi ◽  
Renate Houts ◽  
Harvey J. Cohen ◽  
David L. Corcoran ◽  

Antiaging therapies show promise in model organism research. Translation to humans is needed to address the challenges of an aging global population. Interventions to slow human aging will need to be applied to still-young individuals. However, most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease. As a result, little is known about aging in young humans. We studied aging in 954 young humans, the Dunedin Study birth cohort, tracking multiple biomarkers across three time points spanning their third and fourth decades of life. We developed and validated two methods by which aging can be measured in young adults, one cross-sectional and one longitudinal. Our longitudinal measure allows quantification of the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (e.g., pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, and immune function). We applied these methods to assess biological aging in young humans who had not yet developed age-related diseases. Young individuals of the same chronological age varied in their “biological aging” (declining integrity of multiple organ systems). Already, before midlife, individuals who were aging more rapidly were less physically able, showed cognitive decline and brain aging, self-reported worse health, and looked older. Measured biological aging in young adults can be used to identify causes of aging and evaluate rejuvenation therapies.

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