A DNA Vaccine-Encoded Nucleoprotein of Influenza Virus Fails To Induce Cellular Immune Responses in a Diabetic Mouse Model
ABSTRACT Influenza virus infections cause yearly epidemics and are a major cause of lower respiratory tract illnesses in humans worldwide. Influenza virus has long been recognized to be associated with higher morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Vaccination is an effective tool to prevent influenza virus infection in this group of patients. Vaccines employing recombinant-DNA technologies are an alternative to inactivated virus and live attenuated virus vaccines. Internal highly conserved viral nucleoprotein (NP) can be delivered as a DNA vaccine to provide heterosubtypic immunity, offering resistance against various influenza virus strains. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of an NP DNA vaccine for induction of cell-mediated immune responses and protection against influenza virus infection in a mouse model of diabetes. Healthy and diabetic BALB/c mice were immunized on days 0, 14, and 28 by injection of NP DNA vaccine. Two weeks after the last immunization, the cellular immune response was evaluated by gamma interferon (IFN-γ), lymphocyte proliferation, and cytotoxicity assays. The mice were challenged with influenza virus, and the viral titers in the lungs were measured on day 4. Diabetic mice showed significantly smaller amounts of IFN-γ production, lymphocyte proliferation, and cytotoxicity responses than nondiabetic mice. Furthermore, higher titers of the influenza virus were detected after challenge in the lungs of the diabetic mice. The present data suggest that the NP DNA vaccine with the protocol of immunization described here is not able to induce efficient cellular immune responses against influenza virus infection in diabetic mice.
Differential cellular immune responses between chickens and ducks to H9N2 avian influenza virus infection
Regional antibody and cellular immune responses to equine influenza virus infection, and particle mediated DNA vaccination
Antitumor Effect of a DNA Vaccine Harboring Prostate Cancer-Specific Antigen with IL-12 as an Intramolecular Adjuvant
To improve the lower immune intensity of DNA vaccines, we developed a DNA vaccine based on prostate cancer-specific antigen (PSA), which has been suggested as a potential target for prostate cancer therapy, and enhanced the DNA vaccine potency using interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an intramolecular adjuvant. A series of DNA plasmids encoding human PSA, IL-12, and their conjugates was constructed and injected into female mice intramuscularly, followed by an electric pulse. The humoral and cellular immune responses after immunization were detected by ELISA and ELISPOT, respectively. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of these plasmids, a mouse model with a PSA-expressing tumor was constructed. Mice vaccinated with PSA-IL-12 plasmids elicited the strongest PSA-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Furthermore, these vaccinations inhibited the growth of PSA-expressing tumors and prolonged mouse survival. These observations emphasize the potential of the IL-12 gene as an intramolecular adjuvant for DNA vaccines. Moreover, the vaccine based on PSA and IL-12 may be a promising treatment for prostate cancer.
H5N1 influenza virus-like particles produced by transient expression in mammalian cells induce humoral and cellular immune responses in mice
Vaccination is an effective way to protect from influenza virus infection. Among the new candidates of influenza vaccines, influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) seem to be promising. Here, we generated 2 types of H5N1 influenza VLPs by co-expressing influenza virus Env (envelope protein) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) Gag–Pol. VLPs generated by co-transfection of pHCMV-wtH5 or pHCMV-mtH5 with pSV-Mo-MLVgagpol and pHCMV-N1 were named as wtH5N1 VLPs or mtH5N1 VLPs. The plasmid of pHCMV-wtH5 encoded the wild-type hemagglutinin (HA) (wtH5) from A/swine/Anhui/ca/2004 (H5N1) with a multibasic cleavage site, while pHCMV-mtH5 encoded the modified mutant-type (mtH5) with a monobasic cleavage site. Influenza virus HA VLPs were characterized and equal amounts of them were used to immunize mice subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, or intramuscularly. The levels of HA-specific IgG1, IFN-γ, and neutralization antibodies were significantly induced in mice immunized with wtH5N1 VLPs or mtH5N1 VLPs via all 3 routes, while HA-specific IgG2a was barely detectable. IL-4 secretion was detected in mice subcutaneously immunized with wtH5N1 VLPs or mtH5N1 VLPs, or intramuscularly immunized with mtH5N1 VLPs. Our results indicated that both H5N1 influenza VLPs could induce specific humoral and cellular immune responses in immunized mice. In conclusion, our study provides helpful information for designing new candidate vaccines against H5N1 influenza viruses.
Immune responses generated by intramuscular DNA immunization of Brugia malayi transglutaminase (BmTGA) in mice
SUMMARYAn attempt was made to evaluate the immunoprophylactic efficacy of Brugia malayi transglutaminase (BmTGA) as a DNA vaccine, for human lymphatic filariasis. BmTGA was cloned and characterized in the DNA vaccine vector pVAX1. Further, the tissue distribution study of the DNA construct, pVAX-TGA was carried out in mice and the DNA vaccine was shown to be efficiently distributed to all the organs, was accessible to the immune system, and at the same time was metabolized quickly and did not pose problems of toxicity. Intramuscular immunization in mice showed significant antibody production and splenocyte proliferation upon antigenic stimulation. The immune responses were biased towards the Th1 arm, as evaluated in terms of isotype antibody distribution and cytokine profile. Thus, analysis of the humoral and cellular immune responses indicated that BmTGA is a potent immunogen. However, protection studies as determined by the micropore chamber method using live microfilarial larvae, showed that the DNA vaccine could confer only partial protection in the mouse model. We conclude that despite the induction of sufficient humoral and cellular immune responses, BmTGA as a DNA vaccine could not confer much protection against subsequent challenge and other aspects of the immune responses need to be further investigated.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is metabolized by the liver into 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and then by the kidney into 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], which activates the vitamin D receptor expressed in various cells, including immune cells, for an overall immunostimulatory effect. Here, to investigate whether oral supplementation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], a major form of vitamin D metabolite 25(OH)D, has a prophylactic effect on influenza A virus infection, mice were fed a diet containing a high dose of 25(OH)D3 and were challenged with the influenza virus. In the lungs of 25(OH)D3-fed mice, the viral titers were significantly lower than in the lungs of standardly fed mice. Additionally, the proinflammatory cytokines IL-5 and IFN-γ were significantly downregulated after viral infection in 25(OH)D3-fed mice, while anti-inflammatory cytokines were not significantly upregulated. These results indicate that 25(OH)D3 suppresses the production of inflammatory cytokines and reduces virus replication and clinical manifestations of influenza virus infection in a mouse model.
Electroporation of Synthetic DNA Antigens Offers Protection in Nonhuman Primates Challenged with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus
ABSTRACT Avian influenza highlights the need for novel vaccination techniques that would allow for the rapid design and production of safe and effective vaccines. An ideal platform would be capable of inducing both protective antibodies and potent cellular immune responses. These potential advantages of DNA vaccines remain unrealized due to a lack of efficacy in large animal studies and in human trials. Questions remain regarding the potential utility of cellular immune responses against influenza virus in primates. In this study, by construct optimization and in vivo electroporation of synthetic DNA-encoded antigens, we observed the induction of cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses individually capable of providing protection from influenza virus infection in the rhesus macaque. These studies advance the DNA vaccine field and provide a novel, more tolerable vaccine with broad immunogenicity to avian influenza virus. This approach appears important for further investigation, including studies with humans.